\ BIP! Finder for COVID-19 - Impact-based ranking

BIP! Finder for COVID-19

This version of BIP! Finder aims to ease the exploration of COVID-19-related literature by enabling ranking articles based on various impact metrics.

Last Update: 26 - 11 - 2022 (501088 entries)

Provided impact measures:
Popularity: Citation-based measure reflecting the current impact.
Influence: Citation-based measure reflecting the total impact.
Reader Attention: The current number of Mendeley readers.
Social Media Attention: The number of recent tweets related to this article.
*More details on these impact measures can be found here.
Score interpretations:
Exceptional score (in top 0.01%).
Substantial score (in top 1%).
Average score (in bottom 99%).
Score not available.
Main data sources:
CORD-19 dataset(1) (list of papers)
LitCovid hub(2) (list of papers)
PMC & PubMed (citations)
Mendeley (number of readers)
COVID-19-TweetIDs(3) (tweets)

Use:  Impact  Relevance & Impact
TitleVenueYearImpactSource
201Vaccine mandates for healthcare workers beyond COVID-19  

N/A

J Med Ethics2022       LitCov
202Visceral fat inflammation and fat embolism are associated with lung's lipidic hyaline membranes in subjects with COVID-19  

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggested that fat embolism could explain the importance of visceral obesity as a critical determinant of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We performed a comprehensive histomorphologic analysis of autoptic visceral adipose tissue (VAT), lungs and livers of 19 subjects with COVID-19 (COVID-19+), and 23 people without COVID-19 (controls). Human adipocytes (hMADS) infected with SARS-CoV-2 were also studied. RESULTS: Although there were no between-group differences in body-mass-index and adipocytes size, a higher prevalence of CD68+ macrophages among COVID-19+ VAT was detected (p = 0.005) and accompanied by crown-like structures presence, signs of adipocytes stress and death. Consistently, human adipocytes were successfully infected by SARS-CoV-2 in vitro and displayed lower cell viability. Being VAT inflammation associated with lipids spill-over from dead adipocytes, we studied lipids distribution by ORO. Lipids were observed within lungs and livers interstitial spaces, macrophages, endothelial cells, and vessels lumen, features suggestive of fat embolism syndrome, more prevalent among COVID-19+ (p < 0.001). Notably, signs of fat embolism were more prevalent among people with obesity (p = 0.03) independently of COVID-19 diagnosis, suggesting that such condition may be an obesity complication exacerbated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Importantly, all infected subjects’ lungs presented lipids-rich (ORO+) hyaline membranes, formations associated with COVID-19-related pneumonia, present only in one control patient with non-COVID-19-related pneumonia. Importantly, transition aspects between embolic fat and hyaline membranes were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the lung fat embolism in COVID-19+ patients and describes for the first time novel COVID-19-related features possibly underlying the unfavorable prognosis in people with COVID-19 and obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond)2022       LitCov and CORD-19
203Covid-19: Government abandons mandatory vaccination of NHS staff  

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BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
204Understanding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychiatric trainees and what can help  

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BJPsych Bull2022       LitCov
205Boosted immunity to the common cold might protect children from COVID-19  

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Nat Immunol2022       LitCov and CORD-19
206Mental health after covid-19  

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BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
207Long covid in children and adolescents  

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BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
208Rapid commentary: Ethical implications for clinical trialists and patients associated with COVID-19 research  

Pandemics disrupt clinical trials worldwide, with lasting effects on research. It can severely impact clinical trialists ability to conduct safe and ethically uncompromised trials. Hence, the mounting pressure results in ethically and morally distressing decisions faced by clinical trial professionals during pandemic situations. Whilst clinical trialists attempt to think about preparedness and responses during a pandemic, the need to have an ethical framework that has real-world applicability is imperative. Pandemics are a challenging time for all, however, the safety and access to support for clinical trialists and patients within clinical trials should be at the forefront for their organisations and the government.

World J Psychiatry2021       LitCov and CORD-19
209Studying severe long COVID to understand post-infectious disorders beyond COVID-19  

N/A

Nat Med2022       LitCov and CORD-19
210An early warning system for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants  

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Nat Med2022       LitCov
211Genetic determinants of mannose-binding lectin activity predispose to thromboembolic complications in critical COVID-19  

N/A

Nat Immunol2022       LitCov
212Covid-19 as a long multiwave event: implications for responses to safeguard younger generations  

Mandeep Dhaliwal and colleagues call for urgent correction of the response to covid-19 to safeguard the development of children and young people

BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
213Covid-19: Omicron variant is linked to steep rise in hospital admissions of very young children  

N/A

BMJ2022       LitCov
214SARS-CoV-2 variants with reduced infectivity and varied sensitivity to the BNT162b2 vaccine are developed during the course of infection  

In-depth analysis of SARS-CoV-2 quasispecies is pivotal for a thorough understating of its evolution during infection. The recent deployment of COVID-19 vaccines, which elicit protective anti-spike neutralizing antibodies, has stressed the importance of uncovering and characterizing SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutated spike proteins. Sequencing databases have allowed to follow the spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants that are circulating in the human population, and several experimental platforms were developed to study these variants. However, less is known about the SARS-CoV-2 variants that are developed in the respiratory system of the infected individual. To gain further insight on SARS-CoV-2 mutagenesis during natural infection, we preformed single-genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from nose-throat swabs of infected individuals. Interestingly, intra-host SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutated S genes or N genes were detected in all individuals who were analyzed. These intra-host variants were present in low frequencies in the swab samples and were rarely documented in current sequencing databases. Further examination of representative spike variants identified by our analysis showed that these variants have impaired infectivity capacity and that the mutated variants showed varied sensitivity to neutralization by convalescent plasma and to plasma from vaccinated individuals. Notably, analysis of the plasma neutralization activity against these variants showed that the L1197I mutation at the S2 subunit of the spike can affect the plasma neutralization activity. Together, these results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 intra-host variants should be further analyzed for a more thorough characterization of potential circulating variants.

PLoS Pathog2022       LitCov and CORD-19
215Cross-reactive memory T cells associate with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in COVID-19 contacts  

Cross-reactive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 have been observed in pre-pandemic cohorts and proposed to contribute to host protection. Here we assess 52 COVID-19 household contacts to capture immune responses at the earliest timepoints after SARS-CoV-2 exposure. Using a dual cytokine FLISpot assay on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we enumerate the frequency of T cells specific for spike, nucleocapsid, membrane, envelope and ORF1 SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that cross-react with human endemic coronaviruses. We observe higher frequencies of cross-reactive (p = 0.0139), and nucleocapsid-specific (p = 0.0355) IL-2-secreting memory T cells in contacts who remained PCR-negative despite exposure (n = 26), when compared with those who convert to PCR-positive (n = 26); no significant difference in the frequency of responses to spike is observed, hinting at a limited protective function of spike-cross-reactive T cells. Our results are thus consistent with pre-existing non-spike cross-reactive memory T cells protecting SARS-CoV-2-naïve contacts from infection, thereby supporting the inclusion of non-spike antigens in second-generation vaccines.

Nat Commun2022       LitCov and CORD-19
216Scarce Resource Allocation in a Pandemic: A Protocol to Promote Equity, Timeliness and Transparency  

Shortages of equipment, medication, and staff under coronavirus disease 2019 may force hospitals to make wrenching decisions. Although bioethical guidance is available, published procedures for decision-making processes to resolve the time-sensitive conflicts are rare. Failure to establish decision-making procedures before scarcities arise exposes clinicians to moral distress and potential legal liability, entrenches existing systemic biases, and leaves hospitals without processes to guarantee transparency and consistency in the application of ethical guidelines. Formal institutional processes can reduce the panic, inequity, and irresolution that arise from confronting ethical conflicts under duress. Drawing on expertise in critical care medicine, bioethics, and political science, we propose a decision-making protocol to ensure fairness in the resolution of conflict, timely decision-making, and accountability to improve system response.

Crit Care Explor2021       LitCov and CORD-19
217Headlines play down the gravity of covid-19 in children  

N/A

BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
218FcgammaR-mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection of monocytes activates inflammation  

N/A

Nature2022       LitCov and CORD-19
219Mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause multi-lineage cellular dysregulation and myelin loss in the brain  

Survivors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection frequently experience lingering neurological symptoms, including impairment in attention, concentration, speed of information processing and memory. This long-COVID cognitive syndrome shares many features with the syndrome of cancer therapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI). Neuroinflammation, particularly microglial reactivity and consequent dysregulation of hippocampal neurogenesis and oligodendrocyte lineage cells, is central to CRCI. We hypothesized that similar cellular mechanisms may contribute to the persistent neurological symptoms associated with even mild SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infection. Here, we explored neuroinflammation caused by mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection – without neuroinvasion - and effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and the oligodendroglial lineage. Using a mouse model of mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection induced by intranasal SARS-CoV-2 delivery, we found white matter-selective microglial reactivity, a pattern observed in CRCI. Human brain tissue from 9 individuals with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 infection exhibits the same pattern of prominent white matter-selective microglial reactivity. In mice, pro-inflammatory CSF cytokines/chemokines were elevated for at least 7-weeks post-infection; among the chemokines demonstrating persistent elevation is CCL11, which is associated with impairments in neurogenesis and cognitive function. Humans experiencing long-COVID with cognitive symptoms (48 subjects) similarly demonstrate elevated CCL11 levels compared to those with long-COVID who lack cognitive symptoms (15 subjects). Impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, decreased oligodendrocytes and myelin loss in subcortical white matter were evident at 1 week, and persisted until at least 7 weeks, following mild respiratory SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Taken together, the findings presented here illustrate striking similarities between neuropathophysiology after cancer therapy and after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and elucidate cellular deficits that may contribute to lasting neurological symptoms following even mild SARS-CoV-2 infection.

bioRxiv2022       CORD-19
220Distance education strategies to improve learning during the COVID-19 pandemic  

N/A

Nat Hum Behav2022       LitCov
221What Will It Take to Reduce Suicide Among Transgender North Carolinians by 2030?  

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N C Med J2022       LitCov and CORD-19
222The Influence of Helminth Immune Regulation on COVID-19 Clinical Outcomes: Is it Beneficial or Detrimental?  

Immunologically, chronic worm infections prevent themselves from strong immune responses by skewing the host response towards a T helper 2 (Th2) type. The regulatory response initiated by helminth infections is supposed to temper responses to non-helminth antigens including viral infections which will, in turn, alter the clinical outcomes of infections. In view of this, recent reports highlighted the possible negative associations of severe COVID-19 and helminth co-infections in helminth-endemic regions. As the pathology of COVID-19 is primarily mediated by an excessive immune response and subsequent cytokine storm, which contributes to the poor prognosis of COVID-19, helminth-driven immune modulation will hypothetically contribute to the less severe outcomes of COVID-19. Nevertheless, emerging reports also stated that COVID-19 and helminth co-infections may have more hidden outcomes than predictable ones. Herein, the current knowledge on the interaction of COVID-19 and helminth co-infections will be discussed.

Infect Drug Resist2021       LitCov and CORD-19
223A randomized controlled trial to test financial incentives for COVID-19 vaccination in Ghana  

N/A

Nat Med2022       LitCov
224TRASTORNOS DE LAS EMOCIONES A CONSECUENCIA DEL COVID-19 Y EL CONFINAMIENTO EN UNIVERSITARIOS DE LAS DIFERENTES ESCUELAS DE LA UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL HERMILIO VALDIZÁN. PERÚ  

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Rev Comun Salud2020       LitCov and CORD-19
225Face-mask noninvasive ventilation plus high flow nasal oxygen in COVID-19 patients: "one size fits all" or tailored approach?  

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Minerva Anestesiol2022       LitCov
226Is Ferroptosis a Key Component of the Process Leading to Multiorgan Damage in COVID-19?  

Even though COVID-19 is mostly well-known for affecting respiratory pathology, it can also result in several extrapulmonary manifestations, leading to multiorgan damage. A recent reported case of SARS-CoV-2 myocarditis with cardiogenic shock showed a signature of myocardial and kidney ferroptosis, a novel, iron-dependent programmed cell death. The term ferroptosis was coined in the last decade to describe the form of cell death induced by the small molecule erastin. As a specific inducer of ferroptosis, erastin inhibits cystine-glutamate antiporter system Xc-, blocking transportation into the cytoplasm of cystine, a precursor of glutathione (GSH) in exchange with glutamate and the consequent malfunction of GPX4. Ferroptosis is also promoted by intracellular iron overload and by the iron-dependent accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)-derived lipid peroxides. Since depletion of GSH, inactivation of GPX4, altered iron metabolism, and upregulation of PUFA peroxidation by reactive oxygen species are peculiar signs of COVID-19, there is the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 may trigger ferroptosis in the cells of multiple organs, thus contributing to multiorgan damage. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms of ferroptosis and its possible relationship with SARS-CoV-2 infection and multiorgan damage. Finally, we analyze the potential interventions that may combat ferroptosis and, therefore, reduce multiorgan damage.

Antioxidants (Basel)2021       LitCov and CORD-19
227Production in Escherichia coli of recombinant COVID-19 spike protein fragments fused to CRM197  

During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic affected almost 10(8) individuals. Quite a number of vaccines against COVID-19 were therefore developed, and a few recently received authorization for emergency use. Overall, these vaccines target specific viral proteins by antibodies whose synthesis is directly elicited or indirectly triggered by nucleic acids coding for the desired targets. Among these targets, the receptor binding domain (RBD) of COVID-19 spike protein (SP) does frequently occur in the repertoire of candidate vaccines. However, the immunogenicity of RBD per se is limited by its low molecular mass, and by a structural rearrangement of full-length SP accompanied by the detachment of RBD. Here we show that the RBD of COVID-19 SP can be conveniently produced in Escherichia coli when fused to a fragment of CRM197, a variant of diphtheria toxin currently used for a number of conjugated vaccines. In particular, we show that the CRM197-RBD chimera solubilized from inclusion bodies can be refolded and purified to a state featuring the 5 native disulphide bonds of the parental proteins, the competence in binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, and a satisfactory stability at room temperature. Accordingly, our observations provide compulsory information for the development of a candidate vaccine directed against COVID-19.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun2021       LitCov and CORD-19
228Drug induced liver injury and COVID-19: A review for clinical practice  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) consists of a systemic disease that can present many complications. The infection presents broad clinical symptoms and a high rate of transmissibility. In addition to severe acute respiratory syndrome, the patients manifest complications beyond the respiratory system. The frequency of liver damage in COVID-19 patients ranges from 14.8% to 53% of patients. One should pay attention to drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in patients with COVID-19, especially considering the off-label use of drugs in prophylactic and therapeutic regimens applied on large scales. This review aims to present relevant information on the medication used so far in COVID-19 patients and its possible hepatotoxicity. We reviewed liver damage in patients with COVID-19 on PubMed and Virtual Health Library to investigate DILI cases. Four studies were selected, involving the medicines remdesivir, tocilizumab and a pharmacovigilance analysis study. The hepatotoxicity profile of drugs presented in the literature considers use in accordance to usual posology standards for treatment. However, drugs currently used in the management of COVID-19 follow different dosages and posology than those tested by the pharmaceutical industry. The deficiency of uniformity and standardization in the assessment of hepatotoxicity cases hinders the publication of information and the possibility of comparing information among healthcare professionals. It is suggested that severe liver injury in COVID-19 patients should be reported in pharmacovigilance institutions, and physicians should pay attention to any considerable abnormal liver test elevation as it can demonstrate unknown drug hepatotoxicity. Liver disorders in COVID-19 patients and the use of several concomitant off-label medications — with a potential risk of further damaging the liver - should at least be a warning sign for rapid identification and early intervention, thus preventing liver damage from contributing to severe impairment in patients.

World J Hepatol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
229Covid-19: Early stage cancer diagnoses fell by third in first lockdown  

N/A

BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
230Role of Folate, Cobalamin and Probiotics in COVID-19 Disease Management [Letter]  

Drug Des Devel Ther2021       LitCov and CORD-19
231Variations in COVID-19 vaccination uptake among people in receipt of psychotropic drugs: cross-sectional analysis of a national population-based prospective cohort  

N/A

Br J Psychiatry2022       LitCov and CORD-19
232Attitude and perception towards vaccination against poliomyelitis in Peshawar, Pakistan  

OBJECTIVE: This research aimed to quantitatively assess the general public's awareness, attitude and perception of polio and its vaccination in Peshawar KPK, Pakistan. METHODS: We conducted a survey-based study to understand the surge in polio cases from 2015 to 2019 in the Peshawar city of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A pre-tested questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2019 to assess the attitude and general perception of residents of Peshawar KPK towards polio vaccination. RESULTS: Out of 241 country-wide polio cases, 63 (26.1%) polio cases were reported in Peshawar city from 2015–2019. The questionnaire revealed that individuals between 18–30 years of age had sufficient knowledge (65.1%) about polio. Male and female participants had equal awareness (~ 43%). Participants with higher education (45.9%), those with better financial status (49.5%), individuals with children < 5 years of age (46.4%), and those who had experience of a polio patient (63.1%) had better knowledge. Participants inhabiting the central city were better aware (50.5%) of polio than individuals living in the outskirts. CONCLUSION: The data indicated that poor knowledge and negative attitudes of people towards polio vaccination are the main causes of the polio eradication program's failure. Moreover, religious beliefs, unchecked migration between the Pak-Afghan border, and lack of knowledge about polio vaccination are identified as critical barriers to polio eradication.

Rev Saude Publica2021       CORD-19
233Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors as a new potential therapeutic option in management of COVID-19  

Med Hypotheses2020       LitCov and CORD-19
234Antibody dependent enhancement: Unavoidable problems in vaccine development  

In some cases, antibodies can enhance virus entry and replication in cells. This phenomenon is called antibody-dependent infection enhancement (ADE). ADE not only promotes the virus to be recognized by the target cell and enters the target cell, but also affects the signal transmission in the target cell. Early formalin-inactivated virus vaccines such as aluminum adjuvants (RSV and measles) have been shown to induce ADE. Although there is no direct evidence that there is ADE in COVID-19, this potential risk is a huge challenge for prevention and vaccine development. This article focuses on the virus-induced ADE phenomenon and its molecular mechanism. It also summarizes various attempts in vaccine research and development to eliminate the ADE phenomenon, and proposes to avoid ADE in vaccine development from the perspective of antigens and adjuvants.

Adv Immunol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
235Covid-19 transmission in fitness centers in Norway-a randomized trial  

BACKGROUND: Closed fitness centers during the Covid-19 pandemic may negatively impact health and wellbeing. We assessed whether training at fitness centers increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. METHODS: In a two-group parallel randomized controlled trial, fitness center members aged 18 to 64 without Covid-19-relevant comorbidities, were randomized to access to training at a fitness center or no-access. Fitness centers applied physical distancing (1 m for floor exercise, 2 m for high-intensity classes) and enhanced hand and surface hygiene. Primary outcomes were SARS-CoV-2 RNA status by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after 14 days, hospital admission after 21 days. The secondary endpoint was SARS-CoV-2 antibody status after 1 month. RESULTS: 3764 individuals were randomized; 1896 to the training arm and 1868 to the no-training arm. In the training arm, 81.8% trained at least once, and 38.5% trained ≥six times. Of 3016 individuals who returned the SARS-CoV-2 RNA tests (80.5%), there was one positive test in the training arm, and none in the no-training arm (risk difference 0.053%; 95% CI − 0.050 to 0.156%; p = 0.32). Eleven individuals in the training arm (0.8% of tested) and 27 in the no-training arm (2.4% of tested) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (risk difference − 0.87%; 95%CI − 1.52% to − 0.23%; p = 0.001). No outpatient visits or hospital admissions due to Covid-19 occurred in either arm. CONCLUSION: Provided good hygiene and physical distancing measures and low population prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, there was no increased infection risk of SARS-CoV-2 in fitness centers in Oslo, Norway for individuals without Covid-19-relevant comorbidities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was prospectively registered in ClinicalTrials.gov on May 13, 2020. Due to administrative issues it was first posted on the register website on May 29, 2020: NCT04406909. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12889-021-12073-0.

BMC Public Health2021       LitCov and CORD-19
236COVID-19 and helminth infection: Beyond the Th1/Th2 paradigm  

PLoS Negl Trop Dis2021       LitCov and CORD-19
237Lack of inflammatory bowel disease flare-up following two-dose BNT162b2 vaccine: a population-based cohort study  

N/A

Gut2022       LitCov and CORD-19
238Is there any role of intermittent fasting in the prevention and improving clinical outcomes of COVID-19?: intersection between inflammation, mTOR pathway, autophagy and calorie restriction  

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is provoking a global public health crisis. Even though the academic world is intensively pursuing new therapies, there is still no “game changer” in the management of COVID 19. The Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) is an ancient signaling system that has been proposed as a molecular tool used by coronaviruses and other RNA and DNA viruses in order to replicate and persist in the host cell. In recent years, Intermittent Fasting (IF), a practice consisting on a strict calorie restriction during a prolonged period of time during the day, has gained popularity due to its potential benefits in multiple health systems and in regulating inflammation. IF inhibits the mTOR pathway which is similar to the effects of Rapamycin in some animal models. mTOR inhibition and promotion of autophagy could potentially be the link between the possible direct benefits of IF in COVID-19 due to the interruption of the viral cycle (protein synthesis). Besides, IF has shown to be a strong anti-inflammatory in multiple prior studies, and may play a role in attenuating COVID -19 severity. This review hypothesizes the possible intersection between viral, immunological, and metabolic pathways related to mTOR and the potential mechanisms through which IF may improve clinical outcomes. Future prospective randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate intermittent fasting (IF) regimens in order to prevent and treat moderate to severe forms of COVID-19 in humans are needed.

Virusdisease2021       LitCov and CORD-19
239The clinical progress of mRNA vaccines and immunotherapies  

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Nat Biotechnol2022       LitCov and CORD-19
240Covid-19: What do we know about the delta omicron recombinant variant?  

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BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
241Early COVID-19 therapy with azithromycin plus nitazoxanide, ivermectin or hydroxychloroquine in outpatient settings significantly improved COVID-19 outcomes compared to known outcomes in untreated patients  

In a prospective observational study (pre-AndroCoV Trial), the use of nitazoxanide, ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine demonstrated unexpected improvements in COVID-19 outcomes, when compared to untreated patients. The apparent yet likely positive results raised ethical concerns on the employment of further full placebo84 controlled studies in early stage COVID-19. The present analysis aimed to elucidate whether full placebo-control randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on early-stage COVID-19 are still ethically acceptable, through a comparative analysis with two control87 groups. Active group (AG) consisted of patients enrolled in the Pre AndroCoV-Trial (n = 585). Control Group 1 (CG1) consisted of a retrospectively obtained group of untreated patients of the same population (n = 137), and Control Group 2 (CG2) resulted from a precise prediction of clinical outcomes based on a thorough and structured review of indexed articles and official statements. Patients were matched for sex, age, comorbidities and disease severity at baseline. Compared to CG1 and CG2 AG showed reduction of 31.5-36.5% in viral shedding (p < 0.0001), 70-85% in disease duration (p < 0.0001), and 100% in respiratory complications, hospitalization, mechanical ventilations, and deaths (p < 0.0001 for all). For every 1,000 confirmed cases for COVID-19, at least 70 hospitalizations, 50 mechanical ventilations and five deaths were prevented. Benefits from the combination of early COVID-19 detection and early pharmacological approaches were consistent and overwhelming when compared to untreated groups, which, together with and well-established safety profile of the drug combinations tested in the Pre-AndroCoV Trial, precluded our study to continue employing full placebo in early COVID-19.

New Microbes New Infect2021       LitCov and CORD-19
242Covid-19: Two million people in the UK are estimated to be experiencing long covid, says ONS  

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BMJ2022       LitCov
243COVID-19 and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI); What We Can Learn From the Viral Pandemic to Better Understand the Biology of TBI, Improve Diagnostics and Develop Evidence-Based Treatments  

Front Neurol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
244How Does Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 Affect the Brain and Its Implications for the Vaccines Currently in Use  

This mini-review focuses on the mechanisms of how severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the brain, with an emphasis on the role of the spike protein in patients with neurological symptoms. Following infection, patients with a history of neurological complications may be at a higher risk of developing long-term neurological conditions associated with the α-synuclein prion, such as Parkinson’s disease and Lewy body dementia. Compelling evidence has been published to indicate that the spike protein, which is derived from SARS-CoV-2 and generated from the vaccines currently being employed, is not only able to cross the blood–brain barrier but may cause inflammation and/or blood clots in the brain. Consequently, should vaccine-induced expression of spike proteins not be limited to the site of injection and draining lymph nodes there is the potential of long-term implications following inoculation that may be identical to that of patients exhibiting neurological complications after being infected with SARS-CoV-2. However, further studies are needed before definitive conclusions can be made.

Vaccines (Basel)2021       LitCov and CORD-19
245Covid-19: Is the UK heading for another omicron wave?  

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BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
246Lactoferrin as Antiviral Treatment in COVID-19 Management: Preliminary Evidence  

Lactoferrin (Lf), a multifunctional cationic glycoprotein synthesized by exocrine glands and neutrophils, possesses an in vitro antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, we conducted an in vivo preliminary study to investigate the antiviral effect of oral and intranasal liposomal bovine Lf (bLf) in asymptomatic and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients. From April 2020 to June 2020, a total of 92 mild-to-moderate (67/92) and asymptomatic (25/92) COVID-19 patients were recruited and divided into three groups. Thirty-two patients (14 hospitalized and 18 in home-based isolation) received only oral and intranasal liposomal bLf; 32 hospitalized patients were treated only with standard of care (SOC) treatment; and 28, in home-based isolation, did not take any medication. Furthermore, 32 COVID-19 negative, untreated, healthy subjects were added for ancillary analysis. Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients obtained an earlier and significant (p < 0.0001) SARS-CoV-2 RNA negative conversion compared to the SOC-treated and untreated COVID-19 patients (14.25 vs. 27.13 vs. 32.61 days, respectively). Liposomal bLf-treated COVID-19 patients showed fast clinical symptoms recovery compared to the SOC-treated COVID-19 patients. In bLf-treated patients, a significant decrease in serum ferritin, IL-6, and D-dimers levels was observed. No adverse events were reported. These observations led us to speculate a potential role of bLf in the management of mild-to-moderate and asymptomatic COVID-19 patients.

Int J Environ Res Public Healt2021       LitCov and CORD-19
247Serological markers of SARS-CoV-2 infection; anti-nucleocapsid antibody positivity may not be the ideal marker of natural infection in vaccinated individuals  

J Infect2021       LitCov and CORD-19
248COVID-19 and the reimaging of compassionate release  

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Int J Prison Health2022       LitCov
249N95 respirator and surgical mask effectiveness against respiratory viral illnesses in the healthcare setting: A systematic review and meta-analysis  

OBJECTIVE: To examine the results, level of evidence, and methodologic quality of original studies regarding surgical mask effectiveness in minimizing viral respiratory illness transmission, and, in particular, the performance of the N95 respirator versus surgical mask. METHODS: Meta‐analysis was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines with use of PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library databases. RESULTS: Eight studies (9164 participants) were included after screening 153 articles. Analyses showed statistically significant differences between N95 respirator versus surgical mask use to prevent influenza‐like‐illness (risk ratio [RR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.68–0.94, P < 0.05), non‐influenza respiratory viral infection (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.52–0.74, P < 0.05), respiratory viral infection (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.65–0.82, P < 0.05), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) 1 and 2 virus infection (RR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.06–0.49, P < 0.05), and laboratory‐confirmed respiratory viral infection (RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.66–0.84, P < 0.05). Analyses did not indicate statistically significant results against laboratory‐confirmed influenza (RR = 0.87, CI = 0.74–1.03, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: N95 respirator use was associated with fewer viral infectious episodes for healthcare workers compared with surgical masks. The N95 respirator was most effective in reducing the risk of a viral infection in the hospital setting from the SARS‐CoV 1 and 2 viruses compared to the other viruses included in this investigation. Methodologic quality, risk of biases, and small number of original studies indicate the necessity for further research to be performed, especially in front‐line healthcare delivery settings.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Ope2021       LitCov and CORD-19
250Examining COVID-19 vaccine uptake and attitudes among 2SLGBTQ+ youth experiencing homelessness  

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted 2SLGBTQ+ youth experiencing homelessness. Little is known about vaccine attitudes and uptake among this population. To address this, the objectives of this study were to explore this group’s COVID-19 vaccine attitudes, and facilitators and barriers impacting vaccine uptake. METHODS: 2SLGBTQ+ youth experiencing homelessness in the Greater Toronto Area were recruited to participate in online surveys assessing demographic characteristics, mental health, health service use, and COVID-19 vaccine attitudes. Descriptive statistics and statistical tests were used to analyze survey data to explore variables associated with vaccine confidence. Additionally, a select group of youth and frontline workers from youth serving organizations were invited to participate in online one-on-one interviews. An iterative thematic content approach was used to analyze interview data. Quantitative and qualitative data were merged for interpretation by use of a convergent parallel analytical design. RESULTS: Ninety-two youth completed surveys and 32 youth and 15 key informants participated in one-on-one interviews. Quantitative and qualitative data showed that the majority of 2SLGBTQ+ youth experiencing homelessness were confident in the COVID-19 vaccine; however, numerous youth were non-vaccine confident due to mistrust in the healthcare system, lack of targeted vaccine-related public health information, concerns about safety and side effects, and accessibility issues. Solutions to increase vaccine confidence were provided, including fostering trust, targeted public health messaging, and addressing accessibility needs. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need for the vaccine strategy and rollouts to prioritize 2SLGBTQ+ youth experiencing homelessness and to address the pervasive health disparities that have been exacerbated by the pandemic. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12889-022-12537-x.

BMC Public Health2022       LitCov and CORD-19

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(3) Currently tweets of June 23rd to June 29th 2022 have been considered.

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