|101||Covid-19: Peak of viral shedding is later with omicron variant, Japanese data suggest |
|102||Ramsay Hunt syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination |
|Postgrad Med J||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|103||Nurturing care during COVID-19: a rapid review of early evidence |
|BMJ Open||2022|| ||LitCov|
|104||Characterization of nanoparticles-based vaccines for COVID-19 |
|Nat Nanotechnol||2022|| ||LitCov|
|105||Lack of SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular response in critically ill COVID-19 patients despite apparent effective vaccination |
|Crit Care||2022|| ||LitCov|
|106||ACE2-independent infection of T lymphocytes by SARS-CoV-2 |
SARS-CoV-2 induced marked lymphopenia in severe patients with COVID-19. However, whether lymphocytes are targets of viral infection is yet to be determined, although SARS-CoV-2 RNA or antigen has been identified in T cells from patients. Here, we confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 viral antigen could be detected in patient peripheral blood cells (PBCs) or postmortem lung T cells, and the infectious virus could also be detected from viral antigen-positive PBCs. We next prove that SARS-CoV-2 infects T lymphocytes, preferably activated CD4 + T cells in vitro. Upon infection, viral RNA, subgenomic RNA, viral protein or viral particle can be detected in the T cells. Furthermore, we show that the infection is spike-ACE2/TMPRSS2-independent through using ACE2 knockdown or receptor blocking experiments. Next, we demonstrate that viral antigen-positive T cells from patient undergone pronounced apoptosis. In vitro infection of T cells induced cell death that is likely in mitochondria ROS-HIF-1a-dependent pathways. Finally, we demonstrated that LFA-1, the protein exclusively expresses in multiple leukocytes, is more likely the entry molecule that mediated SARS-CoV-2 infection in T cells, compared to a list of other known receptors. Collectively, this work confirmed a SARS-CoV-2 infection of T cells, in a spike-ACE2-independent manner, which shed novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-induced lymphopenia in COVID-19 patients.
|Signal Transduct Target Ther||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|107||COVID-19 Autopsies Reveal Underreporting of SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Scarcity of coinfections |
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality can be estimated based on reliable mortality data. Variable testing procedures and heterogeneous disease course suggest that a substantial number of COVID-19 deaths is undetected. To address this question, we screened an unselected autopsy cohort for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 and a panel of common respiratory pathogens. Lung tissues from 62 consecutive autopsies, conducted during the first and second COVID-19 pandemic waves in Switzerland, were analyzed for bacterial, viral and fungal respiratory pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 28 lungs of 62 deceased patients (45%), although only 18 patients (29%) were reported to have COVID-19 at the time of death. In 23 patients (37% of all), the clinical cause of death and/or autopsy findings together with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 suggested death due to COVID-19. Our autopsy results reveal a 16% higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rate and an 8% higher SARS-CoV-2 related mortality rate than reported by clinicians before death. The majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients (75%) did not suffer from respiratory co-infections, as long as they were treated with antibiotics. In the lungs of 5 patients (8% of all), SARS-CoV-2 was found, yet without typical clinical and/or autopsy findings. Our findings suggest that underreporting of COVID-19 contributes substantially to excess mortality. The small percentage of co-infections in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who died with typical COVID-19 symptoms strongly suggests that the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients died from and not with the virus.
|Front Med (Lausanne)||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|108||Transparency of COVID-19 vaccine trials: decisions without data |
|BMJ Evid Based Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|109||Precision medicine for corticotherapy in COVID-19 |
|Intensive Care Med||2022|| ||LitCov|
|110||Misleading clinical evidence and systematic reviews on ivermectin for COVID-19 |
|BMJ Evid Based Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|111||Omicron: increased transmissibility and decreased pathogenicity ||Signal Transduct Target Ther||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|112||Inactivated whole-virion vaccine BBV152/Covaxin elicits robust cellular immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern |
|Nat Microbiol||2022|| ||LitCov|
|113||Longitudinal associations between going outdoors and mental health and wellbeing during a COVID-19 lockdown in the UK |
|Sci Rep||2022|| ||LitCov|
|114||Association of Mask Mandates and COVID-19 Case Rates, Hospitalizations and Deaths in Kansas |
This case-control study examines the association between counties that adopted state mask mandates in Kansas with COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths.
|JAMA Netw Open||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|115||Unexplained post-acute infection syndromes |
|Nat Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|116||Cross-sectional survey of changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice of mask use in Sydney and Melbourne during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic |
|BMJ Open||2022|| ||LitCov|
|117||Safety, tolerability and viral kinetics during SARS-CoV-2 human challenge in young adults |
|Nat Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|118||ACE2 coding variants in different populations and their potential impact on SARS-CoV-2 binding affinity |
The susceptibility of different populations to SARS-CoV-2 infection is not yet understood. Here, we combined ACE2 coding variants analysis in different populations and computational chemistry calculations to probe the effects on SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 interaction. ACE2-K26R; which is most frequent in Ashkenazi Jewish population decreased the SARS-CoV-2/ACE2 electrostatic attraction. On the contrary, ACE2-I468V, R219C, K341R, D206G, G211R increased the electrostatic attraction; ordered by binding strength from weakest to strongest. The aforementioned variants are most frequent in East Asian, South Asian, African and African American, European, European and South Asian populations, respectively.
|Biochem Biophys Rep||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|119||Ketogenic Diet as a Preventive and Supportive Care for COVID-19 Patients |
Severe obesity is associated with an increased risk of admission to intensive care units and need for invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19. The association of obesity and COVID-19 prognosis may be related to many different factors, such as chronic systemic inflammation, the predisposition to severe respiratory conditions and viral infections. The ketogenic diet is an approach that can be extremely effective in reducing body weight and visceral fat in the short term, preserving the lean mass and reducing systemic inflammation. Therefore, it is a precious preventive measure for severely obese people and may be considered as an adjuvant therapy for patients with respiratory compromise.
|Nutrients||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|120||On the relation between COVID-19, mobility and the stock market |
The Covid-19 pandemic has brought forth a major landscape shock in the mobility sector. Due to its recentness, researchers have just started studying and understanding the implications of this crisis on mobility. We contribute by combining mobility data from various sources to bring a novel angle to understanding mobility patterns during Covid-19. The goal is to expose relations between mobility and Covid-19 variables and understand them by using our data. This is crucial information for governments to understand and address the underlying root causes of the impact.
|PLoS One||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|121||Recombinant ACE2 protein protects against acute lung injury induced by SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD protein |
|Crit Care||2022|| ||LitCov|
|122||Identification of critical genes and molecular pathways in COVID-19 myocarditis and constructing gene regulatory networks by bioinformatic analysis |
|PLoS One||2022|| ||LitCov|
|123||Ocular Manifestations after Receiving COVID-19 Vaccine: A Systematic Review |
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had profound and lasting consequences since 2019. Although vaccines against COVID-19 have been developed and approved under emergency use authorization, various adverse events have also been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. This review was undertaken to help clinicians recognize the possible manifestations and systemic pathogenesis, especially those related to the eye, after receiving COVID-19 vaccination. A systemic search was performed on 22 August 2021 through Embase, Medline, and Cochrane Library for publications on ocular manifestations after COVID-19 vaccination. Two case-control studies/retrospective cohort studies, one cross-sectional study, three case series, sixteen case reports, two images, and seven letters were included. Ocular manifestations after receiving COVID-19 vaccines may appear on the eyelid, cornea and ocular surface, retina, uvea, nerve, and vessel. The ocular manifestations occurred up to forty-two days after vaccination, and vaccine-induced immunologic responses may be responsible. Although the incidence rate of ocular symptoms is considerably lower in the vaccinated subjects than in COVID-19 patients, physicians should be aware of the possible associations between COVID-19 vaccines and ocular symptoms for the early diagnosis and treatment of vision problems or life-threatening complications.
|Vaccines (Basel)||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|124||Cardiac involvement in the long-term implications of COVID-19 |
Throughout 2021, the medical and scientific communities have focused on managing the acute morbidity and mortality caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. With the approval of multiple vaccines, there is a light at the end of this dark tunnel and an opportunity to focus on the future, including managing the long-term sequelae in patients who have survived acute COVID-19. In this Perspectives article, we highlight what is known about the cardiovascular sequelae in survivors of COVID-19 and discuss important questions that need to be addressed in prospective studies to understand and mitigate these lasting cardiovascular consequences, including in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome. To provide the greatest benefit to these survivors, prospective studies should begin now, with resources made available to monitor and study this population in the coming years.
|Nat Rev Cardiol||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|125||Immunity from smallpox vaccine persists for decades: a longitudinal study |
|Am J Med||2008|| ||CORD-19|
|126||Intestinal microbiota composition of children with infection with SARS-CoV-2 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) |
Microbiota composition may play a role in the development, prognosis, or post-infection of COVID-19. There are studies evaluating the microbiota composition at the time of diagnosis and during the course of COVID-19, especially in adults, while studies in children are limited and no study available in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). This study was planned to compare intestinal microbiota composition in children diagnosed with MIS-C and acute COVID-19 infection with healthy children. In this prospective multicenter study, 25 children diagnosed with MIS-C, 20 with COVID-19 infection, and 19 healthy children were included. Intestinal microbiota composition was evaluated by 16 s rRNA gene sequencing. We observed changes of diversity, richness, and composition of intestinal microbiota in MIS-C cases compared to COVID-19 cases and in the healthy controls. The Shannon index was higher in the MIS-C group than the healthy controls (p < 0.01). At phylum level, in the MIS-C group, a significantly higher relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower abundance of Firmicutes was found compared to the control group. Intestinal microbiota composition changed in MIS-C cases compared to COVID-19 and healthy controls, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased; Bacteroides uniformis, Bacteroides plebeius, Clostridium ramosum, Eubacterium dolichum, Eggerthella lenta, Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Prevotella tannerae, and Bacteroides coprophilus were dominant in children with MIS-C. At species level, we observed decreased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and increased Eubacterium dolichum, Eggerthella lenta, and Bacillus thermoamylovorans in children with MIS-C and increased Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Dorea formicigenerasus in the COVID-19 group. Our study is the first to evaluate the microbiota composition in MIS-C cases. There is a substantial change in the composition of the gut microbiota: (1) reduction of F. prausnitzii in children with MIS-C and COVID-19; (2) an increase of Eggerthella lenta which is related with autoimmunity; and (3) the predominance of E. dolichum is associated with metabolic dysfunctions and obesity in children with MIS-C. Conclusions: Alterations of the intestinal microbiota might be part of pathogenesis of predisposing factor for MIS-C. It would be beneficial to conduct more extensive studies on the cause-effect relationship of these changes in microbiota composition and their effects on long-term prognosis. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: [Image: see text]
|Eur J Pediatr||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|127||Ivermectin, a potential anticancer drug derived from an antiparasitic drug |
Ivermectin is a macrolide antiparasitic drug with a 16-membered ring that is widely used for the treatment of many parasitic diseases such as river blindness, elephantiasis and scabies. Satoshi ōmura and William C. Campbell won the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the excellent efficacy of ivermectin against parasitic diseases. Recently, ivermectin has been reported to inhibit the proliferation of several tumor cells by regulating multiple signaling pathways. This suggests that ivermectin may be an anticancer drug with great potential. Here, we reviewed the related mechanisms by which ivermectin inhibited the development of different cancers and promoted programmed cell death and discussed the prospects for the clinical application of ivermectin as an anticancer drug for neoplasm therapy.
|Pharmacol Res||2020|| ||CORD-19|
|128||Humanized mice develop coronavirus respiratory disease |
|Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A||2005|| ||CORD-19|
|129||COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness-the elephant (not) in the room ||Lancet Microbe||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|130||Analyzing COVID-19 disinformation on Twitter using the hashtags #scamdemic and #plandemic: Retrospective study |
|PLoS One||2022|| ||LitCov|
|131||A human coronavirus evolves antigenically to escape antibody immunity |
There is intense interest in antibody immunity to coronaviruses. However, it is unknown if coronaviruses evolve to escape such immunity, and if so, how rapidly. Here we address this question by characterizing the historical evolution of human coronavirus 229E. We identify human sera from the 1980s and 1990s that have neutralizing titers against contemporaneous 229E that are comparable to the anti-SARS-CoV-2 titers induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We test these sera against 229E strains isolated after sera collection, and find that neutralizing titers are lower against these “future” viruses. In some cases, sera that neutralize contemporaneous 229E viral strains with titers >1:100 do not detectably neutralize strains isolated 8–17 years later. The decreased neutralization of “future” viruses is due to antigenic evolution of the viral spike, especially in the receptor-binding domain. If these results extrapolate to other coronaviruses, then it may be advisable to periodically update SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.
|PLoS Pathog||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|132||VEGF-D: a novel biomarker for detection of COVID-19 progression ||Crit Care||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|133||Clinical and histopathological views of morbilliform rash after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination mimic those in SARS-CoV-2 virus infection-associated cutaneous manifestations ||J Dermatol Sci||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|134||What is the evidence for transmission of COVID-19 by children in schools? A living systematic review |
BACKGROUND: It is of paramount importance to understand the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in schools, which could support the decision-making about educational facilities closure or re-opening with effective prevention and control measures in place. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools. We performed risk of bias evaluation of all included studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). RESULTS: 2178 articles were retrieved and 11 studies were included. Five cohort studies reported a combined 22 student and 21 staff index cases that exposed 3345 contacts with 18 transmissions (overall infection attack rate (IAR): 0.08%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.00%-0.86%). IARs for students and school staff were 0.15% (95% CI = 0.00%-0.93%) and 0.70% (95% CI = 0.00%-3.56%) respectively. Six cross-sectional studies reported 639 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases in 6682 study participants tested [overall SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate: 8.00% (95% CI = 2.17%-16.95%). SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate was estimated to be 8.74% (95% CI = 2.34%-18.53%) among students, compared to 13.68% (95% CI = 1.68%-33.89%) among school staff. Gender differences were not found for secondary infection (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 0.50-4.14, P = 0.49) and SARS-CoV-2 positivity (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.72-1.13, P = 0.36) in schools. Fever, cough, dyspnea, ageusia, anosmia, rhinitis, sore throat, headache, myalgia, asthenia, and diarrhoea were all associated with the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (based on two studies). Overall, study quality was judged to be poor with risk of performance and attrition bias, limiting the confidence in the results. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited high-quality evidence available to quantify the extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in schools or to compare it to community transmission. Emerging evidence suggests lower IAR and SARS-CoV-2 positivity rate in students compared to school staff. Future prospective and adequately controlled cohort studies are necessary to confirm this finding.
|J Glob Health||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|135||Hepatitis C Virus Reactivation Following COVID-19 Vaccination-A Case Report |
PURPOSE: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection impacted morbidity and mortality during the pandemic of 2020–2021. A number of anti-COVID-19 vaccines have been developed with an unprecedented speed. While these vaccines have good efficacy and are safe, the experience with their use is limited and hence the knowledge of rare side effects. Identifying rare complications is important for future safe use of these vaccines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we report a case of a 82-year old patient with dementia who was admitted to a nursing home in the Netherlands. After vaccination with COVID-19 vaccination, physical examinations and lab tests were performed. RESULTS: She had a reactivation of hepatitis C infection after vaccination with the mRNA-based Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. This reactivation manifested with jaundice, loss of consciousness, hepatic coma and death. CONCLUSION: This reactivation of hepatitis C virus after vaccination with the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID‑19 vaccine suggests a need for critical consideration of individuals with prior HCV infection and considered for COVID-19 vaccination.
|Int Med Case Rep J||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|136||Sars Cov Replication and Pathogenesis in Human Airway Airway Epithelial Cultures ||The Nidoviruses||2006|| ||CORD-19|
|137||Endogenous Deficiency of Glutathione as the Most Likely Cause of Serious Manifestations and Death in COVID-19 Patients |
Higher rates of serious illness and death from coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection among older people and those who have comorbidities suggest that age- and disease-related biological processes make such individuals more sensitive to environmental stress factors including infectious agents like coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, impaired redox homeostasis and associated oxidative stress appear to be important biological processes that may account for increased individual susceptibility to diverse environmental insults. The aim of this Viewpoint is to justify (1) the crucial roles of glutathione in determining individual responsiveness to COVID-19 infection and disease pathogenesis and (2) the feasibility of using glutathione as a means for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 illness. The hypothesis that glutathione deficiency is the most plausible explanation for serious manifestation and death in COVID-19 patients was proposed on the basis of an exhaustive literature analysis and observations. The hypothesis unravels the mysteries of epidemiological data on the risk factors determining serious manifestations of COVID-19 infection and the high risk of death and opens real opportunities for effective treatment and prevention of the disease.
|ACS Infect Dis||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|138||Far-UVC light (222 nm) efficiently and safely inactivates airborne human coronaviruses |
A direct approach to limit airborne viral transmissions is to inactivate them within a short time of their production. Germicidal ultraviolet light, typically at 254 nm, is effective in this context but, used directly, can be a health hazard to skin and eyes. By contrast, far-UVC light (207–222 nm) efficiently kills pathogens potentially without harm to exposed human tissues. We previously demonstrated that 222-nm far-UVC light efficiently kills airborne influenza virus and we extend those studies to explore far-UVC efficacy against airborne human coronaviruses alpha HCoV-229E and beta HCoV-OC43. Low doses of 1.7 and 1.2 mJ/cm(2) inactivated 99.9% of aerosolized coronavirus 229E and OC43, respectively. As all human coronaviruses have similar genomic sizes, far-UVC light would be expected to show similar inactivation efficiency against other human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2. Based on the beta-HCoV-OC43 results, continuous far-UVC exposure in occupied public locations at the current regulatory exposure limit (~3 mJ/cm(2)/hour) would result in ~90% viral inactivation in ~8 minutes, 95% in ~11 minutes, 99% in ~16 minutes and 99.9% inactivation in ~25 minutes. Thus while staying within current regulatory dose limits, low-dose-rate far-UVC exposure can potentially safely provide a major reduction in the ambient level of airborne coronaviruses in occupied public locations.
|Sci Rep||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|139||Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis associated with thrombocytopenia post-vaccination for COVID-19 ||Crit Care||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|140||Potent antiviral effect of silver nanoparticles on SARS-CoV-2 |
The pandemic of COVID-19 is spreading unchecked due to the lack of effective antiviral measures. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been studied to possess antiviral properties and are presumed to inhibit SARS-CoV-2. Due to the need for an effective agent against SARS-CoV-2, we evaluated the antiviral effect of AgNPs. We evaluated a plethora of AgNPs of different sizes and concentration and observed that particles of diameter around 10 nm were effective in inhibiting extracellular SARS-CoV-2 at concentrations ranging between 1 and 10 ppm while cytotoxic effect was observed at concentrations of 20 ppm and above. Luciferase-based pseudovirus entry assay revealed that AgNPs potently inhibited viral entry step via disrupting viral integrity. These results indicate that AgNPs are highly potent microbicides against SARS-CoV-2 but should be used with caution due to their cytotoxic effects and their potential to derange environmental ecosystems when improperly disposed.
|Biochem Biophys Res Commun||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|141||Omicron escapes the majority of existing SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies |
The SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant contains 15 mutations of the receptor-binding domain (RBD). How Omicron evades RBD-targeted neutralizing antibodies requires immediate investigation. Here we use high-throughput yeast display screening(1,2) to determine the profiles of RBD escaping mutations for 247 human anti-RBD neutralizing antibodies and show that the neutralizing antibodies can be classified by unsupervised clustering into six epitope groups (A–F)—a grouping that is highly concordant with knowledge-based structural classifications(3–5). Various single mutations of Omicron can impair neutralizing antibodies of different epitope groups. Specifically, neutralizing antibodies in groups A–D, the epitopes of which overlap with the ACE2-binding motif, are largely escaped by K417N, G446S, E484A and Q493R. Antibodies in group E (for example, S309)(6) and group F (for example, CR3022)(7), which often exhibit broad sarbecovirus neutralizing activity, are less affected by Omicron, but a subset of neutralizing antibodies are still escaped by G339D, N440K and S371L. Furthermore, Omicron pseudovirus neutralization showed that neutralizing antibodies that sustained single mutations could also be escaped, owing to multiple synergetic mutations on their epitopes. In total, over 85% of the tested neutralizing antibodies were escaped by Omicron. With regard to neutralizing-antibody-based drugs, the neutralization potency of LY-CoV016, LY-CoV555, REGN10933, REGN10987, AZD1061, AZD8895 and BRII-196 was greatly undermined by Omicron, whereas VIR-7831 and DXP-604 still functioned at a reduced efficacy. Together, our data suggest that infection with Omicron would result in considerable humoral immune evasion, and that neutralizing antibodies targeting the sarbecovirus conserved region will remain most effective. Our results inform the development of antibody-based drugs and vaccines against Omicron and future variants.
|Nature||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|142||COVID-19-A vascular disease |
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to multi-system dysfunction with emerging evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV-2-mediated endothelial injury is an important effector of the virus. Potential therapies that address vascular system dysfunction and its sequelae may have an important role in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection and its long-lasting effects.
|Trends Cardiovasc Med||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|143||Digital health and care in pandemic times: impact of COVID-19 ||BMJ Healthcare Inform||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|144||Antibody-dependent enhancement and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and therapies |
|Nat Microbiol||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|145||Tracking excess mortality across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic with the World Mortality Dataset |
Comparing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic between countries or across time is difficult because the reported numbers of cases and deaths can be strongly affected by testing capacity and reporting policy. Excess mortality, defined as the increase in all-cause mortality relative to the expected mortality, is widely considered as a more objective indicator of the COVID-19 death toll. However, there has been no global, frequently updated repository of the all-cause mortality data across countries. To fill this gap, we have collected weekly, monthly, or quarterly all-cause mortality data from 103 countries and territories, openly available as the regularly updated World Mortality Dataset. We used this dataset to compute the excess mortality in each country during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that in several worst-affected countries (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico) the excess mortality was above 50% of the expected annual mortality (Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico) or above 400 excess deaths per 100,000 population (Peru, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia). At the same time, in several other countries (e.g. Australia and New Zealand) mortality during the pandemic was below the usual level, presumably due to social distancing measures decreasing the non-COVID infectious mortality. Furthermore, we found that while many countries have been reporting the COVID-19 deaths very accurately, some countries have been substantially underreporting their COVID-19 deaths (e.g. Nicaragua, Russia, Uzbekistan), by up to two orders of magnitude (Tajikistan). Our results highlight the importance of open and rapid all-cause mortality reporting for pandemic monitoring.
|Elife||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|146||Effectiveness and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in real-world studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis |
BACKGROUND: To date, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) becomes increasingly fierce due to the emergence of variants. Rapid herd immunity through vaccination is needed to block the mutation and prevent the emergence of variants that can completely escape the immune surveillance. We aimed to systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines in the real world and to establish a reliable evidence-based basis for the actual protective effect of the COVID-19 vaccines, especially in the ensuing waves of infections dominated by variants. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from inception to July 22, 2021. Observational studies that examined the effectiveness and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines among people vaccinated were included. Random-effects or fixed-effects models were used to estimate the pooled vaccine effectiveness (VE) and incidence rate of adverse events after vaccination, and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 58 studies (32 studies for vaccine effectiveness and 26 studies for vaccine safety) were included. A single dose of vaccines was 41% (95% CI: 28–54%) effective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections, 52% (31–73%) for symptomatic COVID-19, 66% (50–81%) for hospitalization, 45% (42–49%) for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admissions, and 53% (15–91%) for COVID-19-related death; and two doses were 85% (81–89%) effective at preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections, 97% (97–98%) for symptomatic COVID-19, 93% (89–96%) for hospitalization, 96% (93–98%) for ICU admissions, and 95% (92–98%) effective for COVID-19-related death, respectively. The pooled VE was 85% (80–91%) for the prevention of Alpha variant of SARS-CoV-2 infections, 75% (71–79%) for the Beta variant, 54% (35–74%) for the Gamma variant, and 74% (62–85%) for the Delta variant. The overall pooled incidence rate was 1.5% (1.4–1.6%) for adverse events, 0.4 (0.2–0.5) per 10 000 for severe adverse events, and 0.1 (0.1–0.2) per 10 000 for death after vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have reassuring safety and could effectively reduce the death, severe cases, symptomatic cases, and infections resulting from SARS-CoV-2 across the world. In the context of global pandemic and the continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, accelerating vaccination and improving vaccination coverage is still the most important and urgent matter, and it is also the final means to end the pandemic. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT: [Image: see text] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s40249-021-00915-3.
|Infect Dis Poverty||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|147||Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor |
The 2002–3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history(1). An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)(2) suggests that this group of viruses remains a major threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested as the natural reservoirs of both viruses(3–5), attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa(5–8), but none are considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins (S) to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2)(9,10). Here, we report whole genome sequences of two novel bat CoVs from Chinese horseshoe bats (Family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China; RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat CoVs, particularly in the receptor binding domain (RDB) of the S protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat fecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses the ACE2s from human, civet and Chinese horseshoe bat for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.
|148||Disrupted Peyer's Patch Microanatomy in COVID-19 Including Germinal Centre Atrophy Independent of Local Virus |
Confirmed SARS-coronavirus-2 infection with gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in microbiota associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity have been previously reported, but the disease impact on the architecture and cellularity of ileal Peyer’s patches (PP) remains unknown. Here we analysed post-mortem tissues from throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of patients who died with COVID-19. When virus was detected by PCR in the GI tract, immunohistochemistry identified virus in epithelium and lamina propria macrophages, but not in lymphoid tissues. Immunohistochemistry and imaging mass cytometry (IMC) analysis of ileal PP revealed depletion of germinal centres (GC), disruption of B cell/T cell zonation and decreased potential B and T cell interaction and lower nuclear density in COVID-19 patients. This occurred independent of the local viral levels. The changes in PP demonstrate that the ability to mount an intestinal immune response is compromised in severe COVID-19, which could contribute to observed dysbiosis.
|Front Immunol||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|149||Triglyceride/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio is Associated with the Mortality of COVID-19: A Retrospective Study in China |
BACKGROUND: Triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-c) is crucial when researching metabolic and vascular diseases, and its involvement in COVID-19 was sparsely elaborated on. The purpose of the study was to explore the inflammatory associations between the TG/HDL-c ratio and COVID-19 prognosis. METHODS: A total of 262 COVID-19 patients consisting of 244 survivors and 18 non-survivors were retrospectively investigated. The clinical features and baseline hematological parameters were recorded and analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to explore the role of TG/HDL-c in predicting the mortality of COVID-19, the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were used to measure the correlation between TG/HDL-c and inflammatory indicators, and the Kaplan–Meier (KM) curve was used to estimate the survival of COVID-19 patients with high and low TG/HDL-c ratio. Logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the role of TG/HDL-c ratio on mortality of COVID-19 with no underlying diseases. RESULTS: Compared with the survivors, the non-survivors of COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of white blood cells (4.7 vs 13.0 × 10(9)/L; P < 0.001), neutrophils (3.0 vs 11.6 × 10(9)/L; P < 0.001), C-reactive proteins (15.7 vs 76.7 mg/L; P < 0.001) and TG/HDL-c ratio (1.4 vs 2.5; P = 0.001). The ROC curve [area under the curve (AUC), 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.609–0.853; P = 0.001] suggested that the TG/HDL-c ratio could predict the mortality of COVID-19. The TG/HDL-c ratio was positively correlated with white blood cells (r = 0.255, P < 0.001), neutrophils (r = 0.243, P < 0.001) and C-reactive proteins (r = 0.170, P < 0.006). Patients with high TG/HDL-c ratio showed a worse survival compared with those with low TG/HDL-c ratio (Log rank P = 0.003). Moreover, TG/HDL-c ratio was an independent factor in predicting the mortality of COVID-19 patients with no underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that TG/HDL-c ratio might potentially be a predictive marker for mortality in COVID-19 patients.
|Int J Gen Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|150||Covid-19: US tracker overestimated deaths among children |
|BMJ||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|