BIP! Finder for COVID-19

This version of BIP! Finder aims to ease the exploration of COVID-19-related literature by enabling ranking articles based on various impact metrics.

Last Update: 02 - 08 - 2021

Provided impact measures:
Popularity: Citation-based measure reflecting the current impact.
Influence: Citation-based measure reflecting the total impact.
Reader Attention: The current number of Mendeley readers.
Social Media Attention: The number of recent tweets related to this article.
*More details on these impact measures can be found here.
Score interpretations:
Exceptional score (in top 0.01%).
Substantial score (in top 1%).
Average score (in bottom 99%).
Score not available.
Main data sources:
CORD-19 dataset(1) (list of papers)
LitCovid hub(2) (list of papers)
PMC & PubMed (citations)
Mendeley (number of readers)
COVID-19-TweetIDs(3) (tweets)

Use:  Impact  Relevance & Impact
1Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Personal Protective and Environmental Measures  


Emerg Infect Dis2020       CORD-19
2SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol Exhaled by Experimentally Infected Cynomolgus Monkeys  

We analyzed size of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) aerosol particles shed by experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys. Most exhaled particles were small, and virus was mainly released early during infection. By postinfection day 6, no virus was detected in breath, but air in the isolator contained large quantities of aerosolized virus.

Emerg Infect Dis2021       LitCov and CORD-19
3How long does covid-19 immunity last?  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
4Underlying Medical Conditions and Severe Illness Among 540,667 Adults Hospitalized With COVID-19, March 2020-March 2021  

INTRODUCTION: Severe COVID-19 illness in adults has been linked to underlying medical conditions. This study identified frequent underlying conditions and their attributable risk of severe COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We used data from more than 800 US hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database Special COVID-19 Release (PHD-SR) to describe hospitalized patients aged 18 years or older with COVID-19 from March 2020 through March 2021. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate adjusted risk of intensive care unit admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death associated with frequent conditions and total number of conditions. RESULTS: Among 4,899,447 hospitalized adults in PHD-SR, 540,667 (11.0%) were patients with COVID-19, of whom 94.9% had at least 1 underlying medical condition. Essential hypertension (50.4%), disorders of lipid metabolism (49.4%), and obesity (33.0%) were the most common. The strongest risk factors for death were obesity (adjusted risk ratio [aRR] = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27–1.33), anxiety and fear-related disorders (aRR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25–1.31), and diabetes with complication (aRR = 1.26; 95% CI, 1.24–1.28), as well as the total number of conditions, with aRRs of death ranging from 1.53 (95% CI, 1.41–1.67) for patients with 1 condition to 3.82 (95% CI, 3.45–4.23) for patients with more than 10 conditions (compared with patients with no conditions). CONCLUSION: Certain underlying conditions and the number of conditions were associated with severe COVID-19 illness. Hypertension and disorders of lipid metabolism were the most frequent, whereas obesity, diabetes with complication, and anxiety disorders were the strongest risk factors for severe COVID-19 illness. Careful evaluation and management of underlying conditions among patients with COVID-19 can help stratify risk for severe illness.

Prev Chronic Dis2021       LitCov and CORD-19
5Dating first cases of COVID-19  

Questions persist as to the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. Evidence is building that its origin as a zoonotic spillover occurred prior to the officially accepted timing of early December, 2019. Here we provide novel methods to date the origin of COVID-19 cases. We show that six countries had exceptionally early cases, unlikely to represent part of their main case series. The model suggests a likely timing of the first case of COVID-19 in China as November 17 (95% CI October 4). Origination dates are discussed for the first five countries outside China and each continent. Results infer that SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China in early October to mid-November, and by January, had spread globally. This suggests an earlier and more rapid timeline of spread. Our study provides new approaches for estimating dates of the arrival of infectious diseases based on small samples that can be applied to many epidemiological situations.

PLoS Pathog2021       LitCov and CORD-19
6Covid-19: GPs urge government to clear up confusion over symptoms  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
7Effect of the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 on life expectancy across populations in the USA and other high income countries: simulations of provisional mortality data  

OBJECTIVE: To estimate changes in life expectancy in 2010-18 and during the covid-19 pandemic in 2020 across population groups in the United States and to compare outcomes with peer nations. DESIGN: Simulations of provisional mortality data. SETTING: US and 16 other high income countries in 2010-18 and 2020, by sex, including an analysis of US outcomes by race and ethnicity. POPULATION: Data for the US and for 16 other high income countries from the National Center for Health Statistics and the Human Mortality Database, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Life expectancy at birth, and at ages 25 and 65, by sex, and, in the US only, by race and ethnicity. Analysis excluded 2019 because life table data were not available for many peer countries. Life expectancy in 2020 was estimated by simulating life tables from estimated age specific mortality rates in 2020 and allowing for 10% random error. Estimates for 2020 are reported as medians with fifth and 95th centiles. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2018, the gap in life expectancy between the US and the peer country average increased from 1.88 years (78.66 v 80.54 years, respectively) to 3.05 years (78.74 v 81.78 years). Between 2018 and 2020, life expectancy in the US decreased by 1.87 years (to 76.87 years), 8.5 times the average decrease in peer countries (0.22 years), widening the gap to 4.69 years. Life expectancy in the US decreased disproportionately among racial and ethnic minority groups between 2018 and 2020, declining by 3.88, 3.25, and 1.36 years in Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and non-Hispanic White populations, respectively. In Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations, reductions in life expectancy were 18 and 15 times the average in peer countries, respectively. Progress since 2010 in reducing the gap in life expectancy in the US between Black and White people was erased in 2018-20; life expectancy in Black men reached its lowest level since 1998 (67.73 years), and the longstanding Hispanic life expectancy advantage almost disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: The US had a much larger decrease in life expectancy between 2018 and 2020 than other high income nations, with pronounced losses among the Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black populations. A longstanding and widening US health disadvantage, high death rates in 2020, and continued inequitable effects on racial and ethnic minority groups are likely the products of longstanding policy choices and systemic racism.

BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
8CDC's Efforts to Quantify Prescription Opioid Overdose Deaths Fall Short  

In a 2018 report titled, Quantifying the Epidemic of Prescription Opioid Overdose Deaths, four senior analysts of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), including the head of the Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch, acknowledged for the first time that the number of prescription opioid overdose deaths reported by the CDC in 2016 was erroneous. The error, they said, was caused by miscoding deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) as deaths involving prescribed fentanyl. To understand what caused this error, the authors examined the CDC’s methodology for compiling drug-related mortality data, beginning with the source data obtained from approximately 2.8 million death certificates received each year from state vital statistics registrars. Systemic problems often begin outside the CDC, with a surprisingly high rate of errors and omissions in the source data. Using the CDC’s explanation for what caused the error, the authors show why an international program used by the CDC for reporting mortality is ill-suited for compiling and reporting drug overdose deaths. Except for heroin, methadone, and opium, each of which has an individual program code, all other opioids are separated in just two program codes according to whether they are synthetic or semisynthetic/opiates. Methadone-involved deaths pose a special problem for the CDC because methadone has dual indications for treating pain and for treating opioid use disorder (OUD). In 2019, more than seven times more methadone was administered or dispensed for OUD treatment than was prescribed for pain, yet all methadone-involved deaths are coded by the CDC as involving the prescribed form of the drug. The authors conclude that the CDC was at fault for failing to recognize and correct this problem before 2016. Public policy consequences of this failure are briefly mentioned.

Pain Ther2021       CORD-19
9Vitamin D supplementation and clinical outcomes in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PURPOSE: To provide a precise summary and collate the hitherto available clinical evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched using appropriate keywords till June 8, 2021, to identify observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting adverse clinical outcomes (ICU admission and/or mortality) in COVID-19 patients receiving vitamin D supplementation vs. those not receiving the same. Both prior use and use of vitamin D after COVID-19 diagnosis were considered. Unadjusted/adjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated (PROSPERO registration number CRD42021248488). RESULTS: We identified 13 studies (10 observational, 3 RCTs) pooling data retrieved from 2933 COVID-19 patients. Pooled analysis of unadjusted data showed that vitamin D use in COVID-19 was significantly associated with reduced ICU admission/mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.81, p = 0.01, I(2) = 66%, random-effects model). Similarly, on pooling adjusted risk estimates, vitamin D was also found to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes (pooled OR 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.91, p = 0.03, I(2) = 80%, random-effects model). Subgroup analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation was associated with improved clinical outcomes only in patients receiving the drug post-COVID-19 diagnosis and not in those who had received vitamin D before diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation might be associated with improved clinical outcomes, especially when administered after the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, issues regarding the appropriate dose, duration, and mode of administration of vitamin D remain unanswered and need further research. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40618-021-01614-4.

J Endocrinol Invest2021       LitCov and CORD-19
10SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Multiple Sclerosis: Results of the Spanish Neurology Society Registry  

OBJECTIVE: To understand COVID-19 characteristics in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and identify high-risk individuals due to their immunocompromised state resulting from the use of disease-modifying treatments. METHODS: Retrospective and multicenter registry in patients with MS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis and available disease course (mild = ambulatory; severe = hospitalization; and critical = intensive care unit/death). Cases were analyzed for associations between MS characteristics and COVID-19 course and for identifying risk factors for a fatal outcome. RESULTS: Of the 326 patients analyzed, 120 were cases confirmed by real-time PCR, 34 by a serologic test, and 205 were suspected. Sixty-nine patients (21.3%) developed severe infection, 10 (3%) critical, and 7 (2.1%) died. Ambulatory patients were higher in relapsing MS forms, treated with injectables and oral first-line agents, whereas more severe cases were observed in patients on pulsed immunosuppressors and critical cases among patients with no therapy. Severe and critical infections were more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, with progressive MS forms, a longer disease course, and higher disability. Fifteen of 33 patients treated with rituximab were hospitalized. Four deceased patients have progressive MS, 5 were not receiving MS therapy, and 2 were treated (natalizumab and rituximab). Multivariate analysis showed age (OR 1.09, 95% CI, 1.04–1.17) as the only independent risk factor for a fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: This study has not demonstrated the presumed critical role of MS therapy in the course of COVID-19 but evidenced that people with MS with advanced age and disease, in progressive course, and those who are more disabled have a higher probability of severe and even fatal disease.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinfla2021       LitCov and CORD-19
11Covid-19: Third of people infected have long-term symptoms  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
12Chronic fatigue syndrome and long covid: moving beyond the controversy  


BMJ2021       CORD-19
13Could expanding the covid-19 case definition improve the UK's pandemic response?  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
14SARS-CoV-2 from Patient with Coronavirus Disease, United States  

The etiologic agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in January 2020. A patient in the United States was given a diagnosis of infection with this virus by the state of Washington and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 20, 2020. We isolated virus from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from this patient and characterized the viral sequence, replication properties, and cell culture tropism. We found that the virus replicates to high titer in Vero-CCL81 cells and Vero E6 cells in the absence of trypsin. We also deposited the virus into 2 virus repositories, making it broadly available to the public health and research communities. We hope that open access to this reagent will expedite development of medical countermeasures.

Emerg Infect Dis2020       LitCov and CORD-19
15Evaluation of the IgG antibody response to SARS CoV-2 infection and performance of a lateral flow immunoassay: cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis over 11 months  

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dynamics and longevity of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and assess the performance of professional use of the UK-RTC AbC-19 Rapid Test lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for the target condition of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibodies. DESIGN: Nationwide serological study. SETTING: Northern Ireland, UK, May 2020–February 2021. PARTICIPANTS: Plasma samples were collected from a diverse cohort of individuals from the general public (n=279), Northern Ireland healthcare workers (n=195), pre-pandemic blood donations and research studies (n=223) and through a convalescent plasma programme (n=183). Plasma donors (n=101) were followed with sequential samples over 11 months post-symptom onset. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in plasma samples using Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgA/IgM, Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG and EuroImmun IgG SARS-CoV-2 ELISA immunoassays over time. UK-RTC AbC-19 LFIA sensitivity and specificity, estimated using a three-reference standard system to establish a characterised panel of 330 positive and 488 negative SARS-CoV-2 IgG samples. RESULTS: We detected persistence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies for up to 10 months post-infection, across a minimum of two laboratory immunoassays. On the known positive cohort, the UK-RTC AbC-19 LFIA showed a sensitivity of 97.58% (95.28% to 98.95%) and on known negatives, showed specificity of 99.59% (98.53 % to 99.95%). CONCLUSIONS: Through comprehensive analysis of a cohort of pre-pandemic and pandemic individuals, we show detectable levels of IgG antibodies, lasting over 46 weeks when assessed by EuroImmun ELISA, providing insight to antibody levels at later time points post-infection. We show good laboratory validation performance metrics for the AbC-19 rapid test for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG antibody detection in a laboratory-based setting.

BMJ Open2021       LitCov and CORD-19
16Delirium in COVID-19: can we make the unknowns knowns?  

Intensive Care Med2021       LitCov and CORD-19
17Covid-19: Should we be worried about reports of myocarditis and pericarditis after mRNA vaccines?  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
18Why Uruguay lost control of COVID  


Nature2021       LitCov and CORD-19
19Brain imaging before and after COVID-19 in UK Biobank  


medRxiv2021       CORD-19
20Obesity is a strong risk factor for short-term mortality and adverse outcomes in Mexican patients with COVID-19: a national observational study  

Conflicting results have been obtained through meta-analyses for the role of obesity as a risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), possibly due to the inclusion of predominantly multimorbid patients with severe COVID-19. Here, we aimed to study obesity alone or in combination with other comorbidities as a risk factor for short-term all-cause mortality and other adverse outcomes in Mexican patients evaluated for suspected COVID-19 in ambulatory units and hospitals in Mexico. We performed a retrospective observational analysis in a national cohort of 71 103 patients from all 32 states of Mexico from the National COVID-19 Epidemiological Surveillance Study. Two statistical models were applied through Cox regression to create survival models and logistic regression models to determine risk of death, hospitalisation, invasive mechanical ventilation, pneumonia and admission to an intensive care unit, conferred by obesity and other comorbidities (diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, immunosuppression, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease). Models were adjusted for other risk factors. From 24 February to 26 April 2020, 71 103 patients were evaluated for suspected COVID-19; 15 529 (21.8%) had a positive test for SARS-CoV-2; 46 960 (66.1%), negative and 8614 (12.1%), pending results. Obesity alone increased adjusted mortality risk in positive patients (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.04–2.98), but not in negative and pending-result patients. Obesity combined with other comorbidities further increased risk of death (DM: HR = 2.79, 95% CI 2.04–3.80; immunosuppression: HR = 5.06, 95% CI 2.26–11.41; hypertension: HR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.77–3.01) and other adverse outcomes. In conclusion, obesity is a strong risk factor for short-term mortality and critical illness in Mexican patients with COVID-19; risk increases when obesity is present with other comorbidities.

Epidemiol Infect2021       LitCov and CORD-19
21COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission vary with age and sex: results from the ISARIC prospective multinational observational study  

BACKGROUND: The ISARIC prospective multinational observational study is the largest cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We present relationships of age, sex, and nationality to presenting symptoms. METHODS: International, prospective observational study of 60 109 hospitalized symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 recruited from 43 countries between 30 January and 3 August 2020. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships of age and sex to published COVID-19 case definitions and the most commonly reported symptoms. RESULTS: ‘Typical’ symptoms of fever (69%), cough (68%) and shortness of breath (66%) were the most commonly reported. 92% of patients experienced at least one of these. Prevalence of typical symptoms was greatest in 30- to 60-year-olds (respectively 80, 79, 69%; at least one 95%). They were reported less frequently in children (≤ 18 years: 69, 48, 23; 85%), older adults (≥ 70 years: 61, 62, 65; 90%), and women (66, 66, 64; 90%; vs. men 71, 70, 67; 93%, each P < 0.001). The most common atypical presentations under 60 years of age were nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain, and over 60 years was confusion. Regression models showed significant differences in symptoms with sex, age and country. INTERPRETATION: This international collaboration has allowed us to report reliable symptom data from the largest cohort of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Adults over 60 and children admitted to hospital with COVID-19 are less likely to present with typical symptoms. Nausea and vomiting are common atypical presentations under 30 years. Confusion is a frequent atypical presentation of COVID-19 in adults over 60 years. Women are less likely to experience typical symptoms than men. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s15010-021-01599-5.

Infection2021       LitCov and CORD-19
22Legacy of COVID-19 infection in children: long-COVID will have a lifelong health/economic impact  


Arch Dis Child2021       LitCov and CORD-19
23An evidence review of face masks against COVID-19  


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2021       LitCov and CORD-19
24Covid-19: Third vaccine dose boosts immune response but may not be needed, say researchers  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
25Ranking the risk of animal-to-human spillover for newly discovered viruses  

The death toll and economic loss resulting from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic are stark reminders that we are vulnerable to zoonotic viral threats. Strategies are needed to identify and characterize animal viruses that pose the greatest risk of spillover and spread in humans and inform public health interventions. Using expert opinion and scientific evidence, we identified host, viral, and environmental risk factors contributing to zoonotic virus spillover and spread in humans. We then developed a risk ranking framework and interactive web tool, SpillOver, that estimates a risk score for wildlife-origin viruses, creating a comparative risk assessment of viruses with uncharacterized zoonotic spillover potential alongside those already known to be zoonotic. Using data from testing 509,721 samples from 74,635 animals as part of a virus discovery project and public records of virus detections around the world, we ranked the spillover potential of 887 wildlife viruses. Validating the risk assessment, the top 12 were known zoonotic viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Several newly detected wildlife viruses ranked higher than known zoonotic viruses. Using a scientifically informed process, we capitalized on the recent wealth of virus discovery data to systematically identify and prioritize targets for investigation. The publicly accessible SpillOver platform can be used by policy makers and health scientists to inform research and public health interventions for prevention and rapid control of disease outbreaks. SpillOver is a living, interactive database that can be refined over time to continue to improve the quality and public availability of information on viral threats to human health.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2021       LitCov and CORD-19
26Covid-19: Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine is "likely" responsible for deaths of some elderly patients, Norwegian review finds  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
27The Neurological Manifestations of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection  

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a global health challenge. This review aims to summarize the incidence, risk factors, possible pathophysiology, and proposed management of neurological manifestations of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) or neuro-PASC based on the published literature. RECENT FINDINGS: The National Institutes of Health has noted that PASC is a multi-organ disorder ranging from mild symptoms to an incapacitating state that can last for weeks or longer following recovery from initial infection with SARS-CoV-2. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed as the culprit for the development of PASC. These include, but are not limited to, direct or indirect invasion of the virus into the brain, immune dysregulation, hormonal disturbances, elevated cytokine levels due to immune reaction leading to chronic inflammation, direct tissue damage to other organs, and persistent low-grade infection. A multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of neuro-PASC will be required to diagnose and address these symptoms. Tailored rehabilitation and novel cognitive therapy protocols are as important as pharmacological treatments to treat neuro-PASC effectively. SUMMARY: With recognizing the growing numbers of COVID-19 patients suffering from neuro-PASC, there is an urgent need to identify affected individuals early to provide the most appropriate and efficient treatments. Awareness among the general population and health care professionals about PASC is rising, and more efforts are needed to understand and treat this new emerging challenge. In this review, we summarize the relevant scientific literature about neuro-PASC.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep2021       LitCov and CORD-19
28Reverse-transcribed SARS-CoV-2 RNA can integrate into the genome of cultured human cells and can be expressed in patient-derived tissues  

Prolonged detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA and recurrence of PCR-positive tests have been widely reported in patients after recovery from COVID-19, but some of these patients do not appear to shed infectious virus. We investigated the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 RNAs can be reverse-transcribed and integrated into the DNA of human cells in culture and that transcription of the integrated sequences might account for some of the positive PCR tests seen in patients. In support of this hypothesis, we found that DNA copies of SARS-CoV-2 sequences can be integrated into the genome of infected human cells. We found target site duplications flanking the viral sequences and consensus LINE1 endonuclease recognition sequences at the integration sites, consistent with a LINE1 retrotransposon-mediated, target-primed reverse transcription and retroposition mechanism. We also found, in some patient-derived tissues, evidence suggesting that a large fraction of the viral sequences is transcribed from integrated DNA copies of viral sequences, generating viral–host chimeric transcripts. The integration and transcription of viral sequences may thus contribute to the detection of viral RNA by PCR in patients after infection and clinical recovery. Because we have detected only subgenomic sequences derived mainly from the 3′ end of the viral genome integrated into the DNA of the host cell, infectious virus cannot be produced from the integrated subgenomic SARS-CoV-2 sequences.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2021       LitCov and CORD-19
29Molnupiravir, an Oral Antiviral Treatment for COVID-19  


medRxiv2021       CORD-19
30SARS-CoV-2 plays a pivotal role in inducing hyperthyroidism of Graves' disease  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) advances to affect every part of the globe and remains a challenge to the human race. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was shown to affect many organs and organ systems including the thyroid gland as these parts highly express angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein, which functions as a receptor for initially entering the virus into the cells. Furthermore, some categories of the population including older people and persons with comorbidities are prone to be more vulnerable to COVID-19 and its complications. Recent reports showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection could cause Graves’ disease (autoimmune hyperthyroidism) in post-COVID-19 patients. Factors that may boost the mortality risk of COVID-19 patients are not completely known yet and a clear perception of the group of vulnerable people is also essential. This review briefly summarizes the features of Graves’ disease such as symptoms, risk factors, including environmental, genetic, immunological, and other factors, associated disorders, and therapeutic options. It comprehensively describes the recent advances in SARS-CoV-2-induced Graves’ disease and the pivotal role of autoimmune factors in inducing the disease. The review also discusses the possible risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated COVID-19 in people with hyperthyroidism. Furthermore, it explains thyroid disease and its association with the severity of COVID-19.

Endocrine2021       LitCov and CORD-19
31Covid-19: The countries that have mandatory vaccination for health workers  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
32Excess mortality in the United States in the 21st century  

We use three indexes to identify how age-specific mortality rates in the United States compare to those in a composite of five large European countries since 2000. First, we examine the ratio of age-specific death rates in the United States to those in Europe. These show a sharp deterioration in the US position since 2000. Applying European age-specific death rates in 2017 to the US population, we then show that adverse mortality conditions in the United States resulted in 400,700 excess deaths that year. Finally, we show that these excess deaths entailed a loss of 13.0 My of life. In 2017, excess deaths and years of life lost in the United States represent a larger annual loss of life than that associated with the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2021       LitCov and CORD-19
33Covid-19, equity and inclusiveness  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
34Vaccinating children against SARS-CoV-2  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
35Convergent evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in human and animals  

Protein Cell2021       LitCov and CORD-19
36How can countries create outbreak response policies that are sensitive to maternal health?  

Ensuring women’s need for sexual and reproductive healthcare are met should be a priority during disease outbreaks, say Maira L S Takemoto and colleagues

BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
37Open science saves lives: lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic  

In the last decade Open Science principles have been successfully advocated for and are being slowly adopted in different research communities. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic many publishers and researchers have sped up their adoption of Open Science practices, sometimes embracing them fully and sometimes partially or in a sub-optimal manner. In this article, we express concerns about the violation of some of the Open Science principles and its potential impact on the quality of research output. We provide evidence of the misuses of these principles at different stages of the scientific process. We call for a wider adoption of Open Science practices in the hope that this work will encourage a broader endorsement of Open Science principles and serve as a reminder that science should always be a rigorous process, reliable and transparent, especially in the context of a pandemic where research findings are being translated into practice even more rapidly. We provide all data and scripts at

BMC Med Res Methodol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
38The potential stickiness of pandemic induced behavior changes in the United States  

Human behavior is notoriously difficult to change, but a disruption of the magnitude of the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to bring about long-term behavioral changes. During the pandemic, people have been forced to experience new ways of interacting, working, learning, shopping, traveling, and eating meals. A critical question going forward is how these experiences have actually changed preferences and habits in ways that might persist after the pandemic ends. Many observers have suggested theories about what the future will bring, but concrete evidence has been lacking. We present evidence on how much US adults expect their own postpandemic choices to differ from their prepandemic lifestyles in the areas of telecommuting, restaurant patronage, air travel, online shopping, transit use, car commuting, uptake of walking and biking, and home location. The analysis is based on a nationally representative survey dataset collected between July and October 2020. Key findings include that the “new normal” will feature a doubling of telecommuting, reduced air travel, and improved quality of life for some.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2021       LitCov and CORD-19
39Cross-reactivity of SARS-CoV-2 with HIV chemiluminescent assay leading to false-positive results  


J Clin Pathol2020       LitCov and CORD-19
40Acute covid-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
41Petechial skin rash associated with CoronaVac vaccination: first cutaneous side effect report before phase 3 results  


Eur J Hosp Pharm2021       LitCov and CORD-19
42Covid-19: Do many people have pre-existing immunity?  


BMJ2020       LitCov and CORD-19
43Covid-19: Upgrading to FFP3 respirators cuts infection risk, research finds  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
44Covid-19: politicisation, "corruption," and suppression of science  


BMJ2020       LitCov and CORD-19
45Western diet increases COVID-19 disease severity in the Syrian hamster  

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an increased trend of systemic IL-10 and IL-6, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.

bioRxiv2021       CORD-19
46Nucleocapsid Vaccine Elicits Spike-Independent SARS-CoV-2 Protective Immunity  


J Immunol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
47Risk factors for long covid in previously hospitalised children using the ISARIC Global follow-up protocol: A prospective cohort study  


Eur Respir J2021       LitCov and CORD-19
48Long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals are robustly boosted by immunization with the CoronaVac and BNT162b2 vaccines  

The durability of circulating neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and their boosting by vaccination remains to be defined. We show that outpatient and hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 seropositive individuals mount a robust neutralizing antibody (nAb) response that peaks at days 23 and 27 post-symptom onset, respectively. Although nAb titers remained higher in hospitalized patients, both study groups showed long-lasting nAb responses that can persist for up to 12 months after natural infection. These nAb responses in previously seropositive individuals can be significantly boosted through immunization with two doses of the CoronaVac (Sinovac) or one dose of the BNT162b2 (BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccines, suggesting a substantial induction of B cell memory responses. Noteworthy, three obese previously seropositive individuals failed to mount a booster response upon vaccination, warranting further studies in this population. Immunization of naïve individuals with two doses of the CoronaVac vaccine or one dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine elicited similar levels of nAbs compared to seropositive individuals 4.2 to 13.3 months post-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Thus, this preliminary evidence suggests that both, seropositive and naïve individuals, require two doses of CoronaVac to ensure the induction of robust nAb titers.

medRxiv2021       CORD-19
49A guideline to limit indoor airborne transmission of COVID-19  

The current revival of the American economy is being predicated on social distancing, specifically the Six-Foot Rule, a guideline that offers little protection from pathogen-bearing aerosol droplets sufficiently small to be continuously mixed through an indoor space. The importance of airborne transmission of COVID-19 is now widely recognized. While tools for risk assessment have recently been developed, no safety guideline has been proposed to protect against it. We here build on models of airborne disease transmission in order to derive an indoor safety guideline that would impose an upper bound on the “cumulative exposure time,” the product of the number of occupants and their time in an enclosed space. We demonstrate how this bound depends on the rates of ventilation and air filtration, dimensions of the room, breathing rate, respiratory activity and face mask use of its occupants, and infectiousness of the respiratory aerosols. By synthesizing available data from the best-characterized indoor spreading events with respiratory drop size distributions, we estimate an infectious dose on the order of 10 aerosol-borne virions. The new virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]) is thus inferred to be an order of magnitude more infectious than its forerunner (SARS-CoV), consistent with the pandemic status achieved by COVID-19. Case studies are presented for classrooms and nursing homes, and a spreadsheet and online app are provided to facilitate use of our guideline. Implications for contact tracing and quarantining are considered, and appropriate caveats enumerated. Particular consideration is given to respiratory jets, which may substantially elevate risk when face masks are not worn.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A2021       LitCov and CORD-19
50Impact of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Activity and Exercise Levels among Older Patients  

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak on the levels of activity among older patients with frailty or underlying diseases. A total of 175 patients (79.0±7.0 years) undergoing outpatient or home-based rehabilitation, stratified into groups, based on frailty status. The percentage of patients who went out at least once a week decreased after the outbreak from 91% to 87%, from 65% to 46%, and from 47% to 36% in the non-frail, frail, and nursing care requirement groups, respectively. The proportion of older patients participating in exercise during the outbreak was 75%, 51%, and 41% in the non-frail, frail, and nursing care requirement groups, respectively. The proportion of older patients participating in voluntary exercise after instruction was lowest in the frail group (35%). Older patients with frailty are susceptible to the negative effects of refraining from physical activity and require careful management.

J Nutr Health Aging2021       CORD-19

(1) COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). 2020. Version 2021-07-26. Retrieved from Accessed 2021-07-27. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3715506
(2) Chen Q, Allot A, & Lu Z. (2020) Keep up with the latest coronavirus research, Nature 579:193 and Chen Q, Allot A, Lu Z. LitCovid: an open database of COVID-19 literature. Nucleic Acids Research. 2020. (version 2021-07-27)
(3) Currently tweets of June 26th to 2nd July 2021 have been considered.

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