BIP! Finder for COVID-19

This version of BIP! Finder aims to ease the exploration of COVID-19-related literature by enabling ranking articles based on various impact metrics.

Last Update: 14 - 09 - 2022 (498131 entries)

Provided impact measures:
Popularity: Citation-based measure reflecting the current impact.
Influence: Citation-based measure reflecting the total impact.
Reader Attention: The current number of Mendeley readers.
Social Media Attention: The number of recent tweets related to this article.
*More details on these impact measures can be found here.
Score interpretations:
Exceptional score (in top 0.01%).
Substantial score (in top 1%).
Average score (in bottom 99%).
Score not available.
Main data sources:
CORD-19 dataset(1) (list of papers)
LitCovid hub(2) (list of papers)
PMC & PubMed (citations)
Mendeley (number of readers)
COVID-19-TweetIDs(3) (tweets)

Use:  Impact  Relevance & Impact
1The covid-19 pandemic will end with public health tools, not clinical ones  


BMJ2022       LitCov
2Diverse functional autoantibodies in patients with COVID-19  


Nature2021       LitCov and CORD-19
3Covid-19: UK makes first payments to compensate injury or death from vaccines  


BMJ2022       LitCov
4Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Personal Protective and Environmental Measures  


Emerg Infect Dis2020       CORD-19
5The role of NSP6 in the biogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 replication organelle  


Nature2022       LitCov and CORD-19
6SARS-CoV-2 aerosol transmission in schools: the effectiveness of different interventions  


Swiss Med Wkly2022       LitCov
7Fatal Case of Rhabdomyolysis Post-COVID-19 Vaccine  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 pandemic has taken away the lives of many people (>4 million per WHO) around the world as of July 2021. With the advancement of the vaccine against COVID-19, in less than a year since the start of the pandemic, the infection rate has come under control in certain regions but is still rising in many more. However, with time, we are also learning a lot more about the adverse events related to the vaccine. This report documents the first fatal case of rhabdomyolysis potentially associated with the COVID-19 vaccine and supports the possibility that autoimmunity is a major risk factor for covid vaccine-related rhabdomyolysis.

Infect Drug Resist2021       LitCov and CORD-19
8Covid-19: Omicron sub variants driving new wave of infections in UK  


BMJ2022       LitCov
9Vaccine-associated enhanced disease: Case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis and presentation of immunization safety data  

This is a Brighton Collaboration Case Definition of the term “Vaccine Associated Enhanced Disease” to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization. The Case Definition was developed by a group of experts convened by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in the context of active development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other emerging pathogens. The case definition format of the Brighton Collaboration was followed to develop a consensus definition and defined levels of certainty, after an exhaustive review of the literature and expert consultation. The document underwent peer review by the Brighton Collaboration Network and by selected Expert Reviewers prior to submission.

Vaccine2021       LitCov and CORD-19
10Increases in COVID-19 are unrelated to levels of vaccination across 68 countries and 2947 counties in the United States  

Eur J Epidemiol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
11Covid-19: How has the pandemic differed across the four UK nations?  


BMJ2022       LitCov
12Covid-19: Omicron infection is poor booster to immunity, study finds  


BMJ2022       LitCov
13Alopecia areata after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination  

JAAD Case Rep2021       LitCov and CORD-19
14What do we know about covid vaccines and preventing transmission?  


BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
15Immune-mediated hepatitis with the Moderna vaccine, no longer a coincidence but confirmed  

J Hepatol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
16High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19  


Nature2021       LitCov and CORD-19
17SARS-CoV-2 from Patient with Coronavirus Disease, United States  

The etiologic agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in January 2020. A patient in the United States was given a diagnosis of infection with this virus by the state of Washington and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 20, 2020. We isolated virus from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from this patient and characterized the viral sequence, replication properties, and cell culture tropism. We found that the virus replicates to high titer in Vero-CCL81 cells and Vero E6 cells in the absence of trypsin. We also deposited the virus into 2 virus repositories, making it broadly available to the public health and research communities. We hope that open access to this reagent will expedite development of medical countermeasures.

Emerg Infect Dis2020       LitCov and CORD-19
18Covid-19 failures show the US needs a national public health system, commission finds  


BMJ2022       LitCov
19The covid waves continue to come  


BMJ2022       LitCov
20Spectrum of neurological complications following COVID-19 vaccination  

COVID-19 vaccines have brought us a ray of hope to effectively fight against deadly pandemic of COVID-19 and hope to save lives. Many vaccines have been granted emergency use authorizations by many countries. Post-authorization, a wide spectrum of neurological complications is continuously being reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Neurological adverse events following vaccination are generally mild and transient, like fever and chills, headache, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, or local injection site effects like swelling, redness, or pain. The most devastating neurological post-vaccination complication is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus is frequently reported in females of childbearing age, generally following adenovector-based vaccination. Another major neurological complication of concern is Bell’s palsy that was reported dominantly following mRNA vaccine administration. Acute transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy are other unexpected neurological adverse events that occur as result of phenomenon of molecular mimicry. Reactivation of herpes zoster in many persons, following administration of mRNA vaccines, has been also recorded. Considering the enormity of recent COVID-19-vaccinated population, the number of serious neurological events is miniscule. Large collaborative prospective studies are needed to prove or disprove causal association between vaccine and neurological adverse events occurring vaccination.

Neurol Sci2021       LitCov and CORD-19
21Purpuric Rash and Thrombocytopenia After the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 Vaccine  

The mRNA-1273 vaccine, popularly called the Moderna vaccine is being widely administered in the United States for the prevention of COVID-19 infection since December 2020. Mild to moderate intensity side effects like low-grade fever, myalgia, chills and malaise were reported in the trials related to the vaccine. With this case report, we report a case of purpuric rash and thrombocytopenia after receiving the first dose of the m-RNA-1273 vaccine. The patient, in this case, is a 60-year-old male patient who received the first vaccine dose and within two days, he developed diffuse papular rash associated with some thrombocytopenia. He had a history of tobacco use, Hepatitis C liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease stage 4, untreated hypertension and systolic congestive heart failure at the baseline. With review of the limited literature related to the vaccine and its side effect profile and with no other etiology explaining the sudden onset of rash, we attribute this thrombocytopenia and purpuric rash as the side effects of the mRNA-1273 vaccine.

Cureus2021       LitCov and CORD-19
22Hydroxychloroquine is effective and consistently so when provided early, for COVID-19: a systematic review  

Introduction Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown efficacy against COVID-19 in some but not all studies. We hypothesized that systematic review would show HCQ to be: effective against COVID-19, more effective when used earlier, not associated with worsening, and safe. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane, EmBase, Google Scholar, and Google for all reports on hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 patients. This included pre-prints and preliminary reports on larger COVID-19 studies. We examined the studies for efficacy, time of administration and safety. Results HCQ was found consistently effective against COVID-19 when used early, in the outpatient setting. It was found overall effective also including inpatient studies. No unbiased study found worse outcomes with HCQ use. No mortality or serious safety adverse event was found Conclusions HCQ is consistently effective against COVID-19 when used early in the outpatient setting, it is overall effective against COVID-19, it has not produced worsening, it is safe.

New Microbes New Infect2020       LitCov and CORD-19
23Smartphone apps in the COVID-19 pandemic  


Nat Biotechnol2022       LitCov
24Psychosis Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination  


Prim Care Companion CNS Disord2022       LitCov and CORD-19
25Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multinational, multicenter collaborative study  

BACKGROUND: The CNS manifestations of COVID-19 in children have primarily been described in case reports, which limit the ability to appreciate the full spectrum of the disease in paediatric patients. We aimed to identify enough cases that could be evaluated in aggregate to better understand the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 in the paediatric population. METHODS: An international call for cases of children with encephalopathy related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and abnormal neuroimaging findings was made. Clinical history and associated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid data were requested. These data were reviewed by a central neuroradiology panel, a child neurologist, and a paediatric infectious diseases expert. The children were categorised on the basis of their time of probable exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cases were excluded when a direct link to SARS-CoV-2 infection could not be established or an established alternate diagnostic cause could be hypothesised. The accepted referral centre imaging data, from ten countries, were remotely reviewed by a central panel of five paediatric neuroradiologists and a consensus opinion obtained on the imaging findings. FINDINGS: 38 children with neurological disease related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from France (n=13), the UK (n=8), the USA (n=5), Brazil (n=4), Argentina (n=4), India (n=2), Peru (n=1), and Saudi Arabia (n=1). Recurring patterns of disease were identified, with neuroimaging abnormalities ranging from mild to severe. The most common imaging patterns were postinfectious immune-mediated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like changes of the brain (16 patients), myelitis (eight patients), and neural enhancement (13 patients). Cranial nerve enhancement could occur in the absence of corresponding neurological symptoms. Splenial lesions (seven patients) and myositis (four patients) were predominantly observed in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Cerebrovascular complications in children were less common than in adults. Significant pre-existing conditions were absent and most children had favourable outcomes. However, fatal atypical CNS co-infections developed in four previously healthy children infected with SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Acute-phase and delayed-phase SARS-CoV-2-related CNS abnormalities are seen in children. Recurring patterns of disease and atypical neuroimaging manifestations can be found and should be recognised being as potentially due to SARS-CoV-2 infection as an underlying aetiological factor. Studies of paediatric specific cohorts are needed to better understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the CNS at presentation and on long-term follow-up in children. FUNDING: American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology, University of Manchester (Manchester, UK). VIDEO ABSTRACT:

Lancet Child Adolesc Health2020       LitCov and CORD-19
26Covid-19: Researcher blows the whistle on data integrity issues in Pfizer's vaccine trial  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
27How effective is a mask in preventing COVID-19 infection?  

The main clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 are respiratory symptoms that can lead to serious cardiovascular damages and severe worsening of other medical conditions. One of the major strategies in preparedness and response to COVID 19 is effective utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) among which the masks of different kinds are on the top of the list especially for activities in the public places. However, the underlying mechanisms of masks in preventing virus transmission have not been well identified and the current experimental data still show inconsistent outcomes that may mislead the public. For instance, the early understanding of the mask functions was limited especially in the escalating phase of the COVID 19 pandemic, resulting in quite controversial remarks on masks. Although extensive studies in mask functions have been carried out ever since the COVID‐19 outbreaks, most of the investigations appear to have focused on exhalation isolation of individuals who may have been infected with the disease. Less emphasis was laid on inhalation protection from virus transmission, an important aspect that undergirds the public health policies and protective strategies. This review provides the most up‐to‐date information on the transmission modes of COVID‐19 virus in terms of droplets and aerosols. The roles of masks in disease prevention and transmission reduction are evaluated on various types, structures and functions. More important, both aspects of exhalation isolation and inhalation protection are discussed based on virus transmission modes and the effectiveness of different types of masks under varied environmental conditions.

Med Devices Sens2021       LitCov and CORD-19
28Covid-19: Social murder, they wrote-elected, unaccountable and unrepentant  


BMJ2021       LitCov and CORD-19
29Infectious viral load in unvaccinated and vaccinated individuals infected with ancestral, Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2  


Nat Med2022       LitCov and CORD-19
30An equitable roadmap for ending the COVID-19 pandemic  


Nat Med2022       LitCov and CORD-19
31Clinical outcomes associated with SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant and BA.1/BA.1.1 or BA.2 subvariant infection in Southern California  


Nat Med2022       LitCov
32Acute Pancreatitis: A Possible Side Effect of COVID-19 Vaccine  

For the first time, the mRNA technology was utilized to produce a vaccine against COVID-19 after the unprecedented pandemic equally affected every part of the world. Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was granted emergency use authorization (EUA) by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2020. EUA has been widely discussed in the medical literature and the general public. The safety of the BNT162b2 vaccine has been investigated in short-term trials with data available for three months. We present a case of a 96-year-old female with a past surgical history of cholecystectomy who presented with acute onset severe abdominal pain a few days after getting the first dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. She was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis with a lipase level of 4036 U/L. Extensive history and investigations were unable to find any etiology. The patient was conservatively managed and discharged home without any complications. There has been some data available in medical literature showing an association between acute pancreatitis and COVID-19 infection. Trial data of Pfizer COVID-19 also shows one case of acute pancreatitis in the treatment group. There have also been individual cases of unexplained acute pancreatitis shared by medical professionals on online forums. Our main goal to write this case is to make medical literature aware of possible emerging side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine, one of such side effects being self-resolving uncomplicated acute pancreatitis.

Cureus2021       LitCov and CORD-19
33The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence  

Please cite this paper as: bin‐Reza et al. (2012) The use of masks and respirators to prevent transmission of influenza: a systematic review of the scientific evidence. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(4), 257–267. There are limited data on the use of masks and respirators to reduce transmission of influenza. A systematic review was undertaken to help inform pandemic influenza guidance in the United Kingdom. The initial review was performed in November 2009 and updated in June 2010 and January 2011. Inclusion criteria included randomised controlled trials and quasi‐experimental and observational studies of humans published in English with an outcome of laboratory‐confirmed or clinically‐diagnosed influenza and other viral respiratory infections. There were 17 eligible studies. Six of eight randomised controlled trials found no significant differences between control and intervention groups (masks with or without hand hygiene; N95/P2 respirators). One household trial found that mask wearing coupled with hand sanitiser use reduced secondary transmission of upper respiratory infection/influenza‐like illness/laboratory‐confirmed influenza compared with education; hand sanitiser alone resulted in no reduction. One hospital‐based trial found a lower rate of clinical respiratory illness associated with non‐fit‐tested N95 respirator use compared with medical masks. Eight of nine retrospective observational studies found that mask and/or respirator use was independently associated with a reduced risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Findings, however, may not be applicable to influenza and many studies were suboptimal. None of the studies established a conclusive relationship between mask/respirator use and protection against influenza infection. Some evidence suggests that mask use is best undertaken as part of a package of personal protection especially hand hygiene. The effectiveness of masks and respirators is likely linked to early, consistent and correct usage.

Influenza Other Respir Viruses2011       CORD-19
34Anti-infection mechanism of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their roles in COVID-19 (Review)  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a variety of impacts on the human body. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is the pathogen that causes COVID-19. It invades human tissues through the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, resulting in an imbalance in the angiotensin II (AngII) level and upregulation of renin-angiotensin system/AngII pathway activity. Furthermore, the binding of AngII to its receptor leads to vasoconstriction, endothelial injury and intravascular thrombosis. In addition, COVID-19 may have adverse effects on male reproductive organs and a marked impact on male reproductive health. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) may improve vascular endothelial function, promote testicular and systemic blood circulation and testosterone secretion and enhance epididymal function, as well as sperm maturation and capacitation. PDE5Is may also be of use in the treatment of infectious diseases by enhancing immunity and anti-inflammatory responses and improving vascular endothelial function. Based on the pharmacological mechanism of PDE5Is, they are of unique value in the fight against infectious diseases and may be effective in combination with direct antiviral drugs. The anti-infection mechanisms of PDE5Is and their roles in COVID-19 were reviewed in the present study.

Exp Ther Med2021       LitCov and CORD-19
35Covid-19 pandemic: What is the truth?  

The ongoing “pandemic” involving the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) has several characteristics that make it unique in the history of pandemics. This entails not only the draconian measures that some countries and individual states within the United States and initiated and made policy, most of which are without precedent or scientific support, but also the completely unscientific way the infection has been handled. For the 1(st) time in medical history, major experts in virology, epidemiology, infectious diseases, and vaccinology have not only been ignored, but are also demonized, marginalized and in some instances, become the victim of legal measures that can only be characterized as totalitarian. Discussions involving various scientific opinions have been eliminated, top scientists have been frightened into silence by threats to their careers, physicians have lost their licenses, and the concept of early treatment has been virtually eliminated. Hundreds of thousands of people have died needlessly as a result of, in my opinion and the opinion of others, poorly designed treatment protocols, mostly stemming from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, which have been rigidly enforced among all hospitals. The economic, psychological, and institutional damage caused by these unscientific policies is virtually unmeasurable. Whole generations of young people will suffer irreparable damage, both physical and psychological, possibly forever. The truth must be told.

Surg Neurol Int2021       LitCov and CORD-19
36Mucosal Immunity in COVID-19: A Neglected but Critical Aspect of SARS-CoV-2 Infection  

The mucosal immune system is the largest component of the entire immune system, having evolved to provide protection at the main sites of infectious threat: the mucosae. As SARS-CoV-2 initially infects the upper respiratory tract, its first interactions with the immune system must occur predominantly at the respiratory mucosal surfaces, during both inductive and effector phases of the response. However, almost all studies of the immune response in COVID-19 have focused exclusively on serum antibodies and systemic cell-mediated immunity including innate responses. This article proposes that there is a significant role for mucosal immunity and for secretory as well as circulating IgA antibodies in COVID-19, and that it is important to elucidate this in order to comprehend especially the asymptomatic and mild states of the infection, which appear to account for the majority of cases. Moreover, it is possible that mucosal immunity can be exploited for beneficial diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic purposes.

Front Immunol2020       LitCov and CORD-19
37Perceived changes of specific attitudes, perceptions and behaviors during the Corona pandemic and their relation to wellbeing  

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most people had to cope with the restrictions of the lockdown, leaving them to their fears, insecurity and isolation. On the other hand, due to the unexpected ‘extra time’ there was room for new experiences and for personal reflections on what is essential in life, to perceive nature and relations more consciously etc. We, therefore, intended to analyze perceived changes of attitudes and behaviors during the time of lockdown, and whether these perceptions would contribute to personal wellbeing during the pandemic. METHODS: An anonym cross-sectional online survey was performed for data collection, using standardized questionnaires, i.e., the WHO-Five Well-being Index (WHO-5), Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS), Awe/Gratitude scale (GrAw-7), and the newly developed Perceived Changes Questionnaire (PCQ). RESULTS: Within the number of respondents (n = 1277), women were predominating (67.5%). Participants’ mean age was 50.9 ± 14.9 years. Exploratory factor analyses showed that the 24-item Perceived Changes Questionnaire differentiated five factors that would account for 61% of variance: (1) Nature/Silence/Contemplation (Cronbach’s alpha = .87), (2) Spirituality (Cronbach’s alpha = .83), (3) Relationships (Cronbach’s alpha = .80), (4) Reflection on life (Cronbach’s alpha = .74), (5) Digital media usage (Cronbach’s alpha = .74). Strongest changes were observed for Relationships and Nature/Silence/Contemplation. Perceived changes were stronger among older persons, among persons with higher wellbeing, and among those who relied on their faith as a resource. These changes were predicted best by a person’s perception of wondering awe in distinct situations with subsequent feelings of gratitude. Stepwise regression analyzes revealed that participants’ wellbeing was explained best by low perceived burden and high life satisfaction (R(2) = .46). Awe/gratitude, perceived changes in terms of Nature/Silence/Contemplation and low Reflections of live are further variables that would predict a person’s wellbeing among the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: During the Corona pandemic, people tried to find ways to adapt to the outcomes of the restrictions. The perceived changes of attitudes and behaviors can be interpreted in terms of a reappraisal strategy. These can be measured with the extended version of the PCQ which was found to have good quality indices and a plausible factor structure. The reported changes contribute to persons’ wellbeing only to some extend, indicating that they represent an independent quality of relevance in peoples’ life.

Health Qual Life Outcomes2020       LitCov and CORD-19
38Human lungs show limited permissiveness for SARS-CoV-2 due to scarce ACE2 levels but virus induced expansion of inflammatory macrophages  


Eur Respir J2022       LitCov
39Covid-19: An urgent call for global "vaccines-plus" action  


BMJ2022       LitCov and CORD-19
40Experimental evidence on learning using low-tech when school is out  


Nat Hum Behav2022       LitCov
41Evidence for a connection between coronavirus disease-19 and exposure to radiofrequency radiation from wireless communications including 5G  

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) public health policy has focused on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus and its effects on human health while environmental factors have been largely ignored. In considering the epidemiological triad (agent-host-environment) applicable to all disease, we investigated a possible environmental factor in the COVID-19 pandemic: ambient radiofrequency radiation from wireless communication systems including microwaves and millimeter waves. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that caused the COVID-19 pandemic, surfaced in Wuhan, China shortly after the implementation of city-wide (fifth generation [5G] of wireless communications radiation [WCR]), and rapidly spread globally, initially demonstrating a statistical correlation to international communities with recently established 5G networks. In this study, we examined the peer-reviewed scientific literature on the detrimental bioeffects of WCR and identified several mechanisms by which WCR may have contributed to the COVID-19 pandemic as a toxic environmental cofactor. By crossing boundaries between the disciplines of biophysics and pathophysiology, we present evidence that WCR may: (1) cause morphologic changes in erythrocytes including echinocyte and rouleaux formation that can contribute to hypercoagulation; (2) impair microcirculation and reduce erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels exacerbating hypoxia; (3) amplify immune system dysfunction, including immunosuppression, autoimmunity, and hyperinflammation; (4) increase cellular oxidative stress and the production of free radicals resulting in vascular injury and organ damage; (5) increase intracellular Ca(2+) essential for viral entry, replication, and release, in addition to promoting pro-inflammatory pathways; and (6) worsen heart arrhythmias and cardiac disorders. RELEVANCE FOR PATIENTS: In short, WCR has become a ubiquitous environmental stressor that we propose may have contributed to adverse health outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and increased the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we recommend that all people, particularly those suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, reduce their exposure to WCR as much as reasonably achievable until further research better clarifies the systemic health effects associated with chronic WCR exposure.

J Clin Transl Res2021       LitCov and CORD-19
42Covid-19: Long covid risk is lower with omicron than delta, researchers find  


BMJ2022       LitCov
43Comprehensive investigations revealed consistent pathophysiological alterations after vaccination with COVID-19 vaccines  

Large-scale COVID-19 vaccinations are currently underway in many countries in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we report, besides generation of neutralizing antibodies, consistent alterations in hemoglobin A1c, serum sodium and potassium levels, coagulation profiles, and renal functions in healthy volunteers after vaccination with an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Similar changes had also been reported in COVID-19 patients, suggesting that vaccination mimicked an infection. Single-cell mRNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before and 28 days after the first inoculation also revealed consistent alterations in gene expression of many different immune cell types. Reduction of CD8(+) T cells and increase in classic monocyte contents were exemplary. Moreover, scRNA-seq revealed increased NF-κB signaling and reduced type I interferon responses, which were confirmed by biological assays and also had been reported to occur after SARS-CoV-2 infection with aggravating symptoms. Altogether, our study recommends additional caution when vaccinating people with pre-existing clinical conditions, including diabetes, electrolyte imbalances, renal dysfunction, and coagulation disorders.

Cell Discov2021       LitCov and CORD-19
44A monoclonal antibody against staphylococcal enterotoxin B superantigen inhibits SARS-CoV-2 entry in vitro  

We recently discovered a superantigen-like motif, similar to Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), near the S1/S2 cleavage site of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein, which might explain the multisystem-inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) observed in children and cytokine storm in severe COVID-19 patients. We show here that an anti-SEB monoclonal antibody (mAb), 6D3, can bind this viral motif, and in particular its PRRA insert, to inhibit infection by blocking the access of host cell proteases, TMPRSS2 or furin, to the cleavage site. The high affinity of 6D3 for the furin-cleavage site originates from a poly-acidic segment at its heavy chain CDR2, a feature shared with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing mAb 4A8. The affinity of 6D3 and 4A8 for this site points to their potential utility as therapeutics for treating COVID-19, MIS-C, or common cold caused by human coronaviruses (HCoVs) that possess a furin-like cleavage site.

bioRxiv2020       CORD-19
45Myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination: clinical observations and potential mechanisms  

The risk of acute myocarditis associated with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination has garnered intense (social) media attention. However, myocarditis after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination is rare and usually resolves within days or weeks. Moreover, the risks of hospitalization and death associated with COVID-19 are greater than the risk associated with COVID-19 vaccination. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination should be recommended in adolescents and adults.

Nat Rev Cardiol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
46Mortality outcomes with hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in COVID-19 from an international collaborative meta-analysis of randomized trials  

Substantial COVID-19 research investment has been allocated to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on hydroxychloroquine/chloroquine, which currently face recruitment challenges or early discontinuation. We aim to estimate the effects of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine on survival in COVID-19 from all currently available RCT evidence, published and unpublished. We present a rapid meta-analysis of ongoing, completed, or discontinued RCTs on hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine treatment for any COVID-19 patients (protocol: We systematically identified unpublished RCTs (, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Cochrane COVID-registry up to June 11, 2020), and published RCTs (PubMed, medRxiv and bioRxiv up to October 16, 2020). All-cause mortality has been extracted (publications/preprints) or requested from investigators and combined in random-effects meta-analyses, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), separately for hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. Prespecified subgroup analyses include patient setting, diagnostic confirmation, control type, and publication status. Sixty-three trials were potentially eligible. We included 14 unpublished trials (1308 patients) and 14 publications/preprints (9011 patients). Results for hydroxychloroquine are dominated by RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY, two highly pragmatic trials, which employed relatively high doses and included 4716 and 1853 patients, respectively (67% of the total sample size). The combined OR on all-cause mortality for hydroxychloroquine is 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.20; I² = 0%; 26 trials; 10,012 patients) and for chloroquine 1.77 (95%CI: 0.15, 21.13, I² = 0%; 4 trials; 307 patients). We identified no subgroup effects. We found that treatment with hydroxychloroquine is associated with increased mortality in COVID-19 patients, and there is no benefit of chloroquine. Findings have unclear generalizability to outpatients, children, pregnant women, and people with comorbidities.

Nat Commun2021       LitCov and CORD-19
47Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) of SARS-CoV-2: Mutation, infectivity, transmission and vaccine resistance  

The appearance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant Omicron (B.1.1.529) has caused panic responses around the world because of its high transmission rate and number of mutations. This review summarizes the highly mutated regions, the essential infectivity, transmission, vaccine breakthrough and antibody resistance of the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. The Omicron is highly transmissible and is spreading faster than any previous variant, but may cause less severe symptoms than previous variants. The Omicron is able to escape the immune system’s defenses and coronavirus disease 2019 vaccines are less effective against the Omicron variant. Early careful preventive steps including vaccination will always be key for the suppression of the Omicron variant.

World J Clin Cases2022       LitCov and CORD-19
48Incidence, co-occurrence and evolution of long-COVID features: A 6-month retrospective cohort study of 273,618 survivors of COVID-19  

BACKGROUND: Long-COVID refers to a variety of symptoms affecting different organs reported by people following Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. To date, there have been no robust estimates of the incidence and co-occurrence of long-COVID features, their relationship to age, sex, or severity of infection, and the extent to which they are specific to COVID-19. The aim of this study is to address these issues. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study based on linked electronic health records (EHRs) data from 81 million patients including 273,618 COVID-19 survivors. The incidence and co-occurrence within 6 months and in the 3 to 6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis were calculated for 9 core features of long-COVID (breathing difficulties/breathlessness, fatigue/malaise, chest/throat pain, headache, abdominal symptoms, myalgia, other pain, cognitive symptoms, and anxiety/depression). Their co-occurrence network was also analyzed. Comparison with a propensity score–matched cohort of patients diagnosed with influenza during the same time period was achieved using Kaplan–Meier analysis and the Cox proportional hazard model. The incidence of atopic dermatitis was used as a negative control. Among COVID-19 survivors (mean [SD] age: 46.3 [19.8], 55.6% female), 57.00% had one or more long-COVID feature recorded during the whole 6-month period (i.e., including the acute phase), and 36.55% between 3 and 6 months. The incidence of each feature was: abnormal breathing (18.71% in the 1- to 180-day period; 7.94% in the 90- to180-day period), fatigue/malaise (12.82%; 5.87%), chest/throat pain (12.60%; 5.71%), headache (8.67%; 4.63%), other pain (11.60%; 7.19%), abdominal symptoms (15.58%; 8.29%), myalgia (3.24%; 1.54%), cognitive symptoms (7.88%; 3.95%), and anxiety/depression (22.82%; 15.49%). All 9 features were more frequently reported after COVID-19 than after influenza (with an overall excess incidence of 16.60% and hazard ratios between 1.44 and 2.04, all p < 0.001), co-occurred more commonly, and formed a more interconnected network. Significant differences in incidence and co-occurrence were associated with sex, age, and illness severity. Besides the limitations inherent to EHR data, limitations of this study include that (i) the findings do not generalize to patients who have had COVID-19 but were not diagnosed, nor to patients who do not seek or receive medical attention when experiencing symptoms of long-COVID; (ii) the findings say nothing about the persistence of the clinical features; and (iii) the difference between cohorts might be affected by one cohort seeking or receiving more medical attention for their symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Long-COVID clinical features occurred and co-occurred frequently and showed some specificity to COVID-19, though they were also observed after influenza. Different long-COVID clinical profiles were observed based on demographics and illness severity.

PLoS Med2021       LitCov and CORD-19
49Asymptomatic Shedding of Respiratory Virus among an Ambulatory Population across Seasons  

Most observation of human respiratory virus carriage is derived from medical surveillance; however, the infections documented by this surveillance represent only a symptomatic fraction of the total infected population. As the role of asymptomatic infection in respiratory virus transmission is still largely unknown and rates of asymptomatic shedding are not well constrained, it is important to obtain more-precise estimates through alternative sampling methods. We actively recruited participants from among visitors to a New York City tourist attraction. Nasopharyngeal swabs, demographics, and survey information on symptoms, medical history, and recent travel were obtained from 2,685 adults over two seasonal arms. We used multiplex PCR to test swab specimens for a selection of common respiratory viruses. A total of 6.2% of samples (168 individuals) tested positive for at least one virus, with 5.6% testing positive in the summer arm and 7.0% testing positive in the winter arm. Of these, 85 (50.6%) were positive for human rhinovirus (HRV), 65 (38.7%) for coronavirus (CoV), and 18 (10.2%) for other viruses (including adenovirus, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus, and parainfluenza virus). Depending on the definition of symptomatic infection, 65% to 97% of infections were classified as asymptomatic. The best-fit model for prediction of positivity across all viruses included a symptom severity score, Hispanic ethnicity data, and age category, though there were slight differences across the seasonal arms. Though having symptoms is predictive of virus positivity, there are high levels of asymptomatic respiratory virus shedding among the members of an ambulatory population in New York City. IMPORTANCE Respiratory viruses are common in human populations, causing significant levels of morbidity. Understanding the distribution of these viruses is critical for designing control methods. However, most data available are from medical records and thus predominantly represent symptomatic infections. Estimates for asymptomatic prevalence are sparse and span a broad range. In this study, we aimed to measure more precisely the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic in a general, ambulatory adult population. We recruited participants from a New York City tourist attraction and administered nasal swabs, testing them for adenovirus, coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, rhinovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus. At recruitment, participants completed surveys on demographics and symptomology. Analysis of these data indicated that over 6% of participants tested positive for shedding of respiratory virus. While participants who tested positive were more likely to report symptoms than those who did not, over half of participants who tested positive were asymptomatic.

mSphere2018       CORD-19
50More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

COVID-19 can involve persistence, sequelae, and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing the long-term effects of COVID-19. LitCOVID and Embase were searched to identify articles with original data published before the 1st of January 2021, with a minimum of 100 patients. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included (age 17–87 years). The included studies defined long-COVID as ranging from 14 to 110 days post-viral infection. It was estimated that 80% of the infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). Multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.

Sci Rep2021       LitCov and CORD-19

(1) COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). 2020. Version 2022-06-02. Retrieved from Accessed 2022-06-05. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3715506
(2) Chen Q, Allot A, & Lu Z. (2020) Keep up with the latest coronavirus research, Nature 579:193 and Chen Q, Allot A, Lu Z. LitCovid: an open database of COVID-19 literature. Nucleic Acids Research. 2020. (version 2022-09-06)
(3) Currently tweets of June 23rd to June 29th 2022 have been considered.

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