|1||COVID UPDATE: What is the truth? ||Surg Neurol Int||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|2||Adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccines and measures to prevent them |
|Virol J||2022|| ||LitCov|
|3||The covid-19 pandemic will end with public health tools, not clinical ones |
|4||Long-COVID in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analyses |
|Sci Rep||2022|| ||LitCov|
|5||Diverse functional autoantibodies in patients with COVID-19 |
|Nature||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|6||Acute kidney rejection after anti-SARS-CoV-2 virus-vectored vaccine-case report |
COVID-19 infection remains a threat to the health systems of many countries. Potential success in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic is the vaccination of high-risk groups, including patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) and after solid organ transplantation (SOT). Immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients can also reduce the immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines (varied by vaccine platform), available data suggest that they are efficacious in approximately 50–70%, compared to non-transplant situations. In this paper, we present a newly developed acute humoral and cellular rejection with acute allograft failure and need of hemodialysis 14 days after administration of the adenovirus vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (AstraZeneca; CHADOx1, AZD1222). This occurred in a patient who previously had an asymptomatic COVID-19 infection. Case reports of acute allograft rejection after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 can help stratify risk groups of patients who develop hyperimmune reactions. However, it is also possible that those with a previous mild primary COVID-19 infection may also develop acute allograft rejections upon COVID-19 re-infection.
|NPJ Vaccines||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|7||Covid-19: UK makes first payments to compensate injury or death from vaccines |
|8||Nonpharmaceutical Measures for Pandemic Influenza in Nonhealthcare Settings-Personal Protective and Environmental Measures |
|Emerg Infect Dis||2020|| ||CORD-19|
|9||Neurotoxic amyloidogenic peptides in the proteome of SARS-COV2: potential implications for neurological symptoms in COVID-19 |
|Nat Commun||2022|| ||LitCov|
|10||Risks of myocarditis, pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 vaccination or SARS-CoV-2 infection |
Although myocarditis and pericarditis were not observed as adverse events in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine trials, there have been numerous reports of suspected cases following vaccination in the general population. We undertook a self-controlled case series study of people aged 16 or older vaccinated for COVID-19 in England between 1 December 2020 and 24 August 2021 to investigate hospital admission or death from myocarditis, pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias in the 1–28 days following adenovirus (ChAdOx1, n = 20,615,911) or messenger RNA-based (BNT162b2, n = 16,993,389; mRNA-1273, n = 1,006,191) vaccines or a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive test (n = 3,028,867). We found increased risks of myocarditis associated with the first dose of ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccines and the first and second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine over the 1–28 days postvaccination period, and after a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We estimated an extra two (95% confidence interval (CI) 0, 3), one (95% CI 0, 2) and six (95% CI 2, 8) myocarditis events per 1 million people vaccinated with ChAdOx1, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, respectively, in the 28 days following a first dose and an extra ten (95% CI 7, 11) myocarditis events per 1 million vaccinated in the 28 days after a second dose of mRNA-1273. This compares with an extra 40 (95% CI 38, 41) myocarditis events per 1 million patients in the 28 days following a SARS-CoV-2 positive test. We also observed increased risks of pericarditis and cardiac arrhythmias following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Similar associations were not observed with any of the COVID-19 vaccines, apart from an increased risk of arrhythmia following a second dose of mRNA-1273. Subgroup analyses by age showed the increased risk of myocarditis associated with the two mRNA vaccines was present only in those younger than 40.
|Nat Med||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|11||Cross-sectional seroprevalence surveys of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in children in Germany, June 2020 to May 2021 |
|Nat Commun||2022|| ||LitCov|
|12||Long-term cardiovascular outcomes of COVID-19 |
The cardiovascular complications of acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are well described, but the post-acute cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 have not yet been comprehensively characterized. Here we used national healthcare databases from the US Department of Veterans Affairs to build a cohort of 153,760 individuals with COVID-19, as well as two sets of control cohorts with 5,637,647 (contemporary controls) and 5,859,411 (historical controls) individuals, to estimate risks and 1-year burdens of a set of pre-specified incident cardiovascular outcomes. We show that, beyond the first 30 d after infection, individuals with COVID-19 are at increased risk of incident cardiovascular disease spanning several categories, including cerebrovascular disorders, dysrhythmias, ischemic and non-ischemic heart disease, pericarditis, myocarditis, heart failure and thromboembolic disease. These risks and burdens were evident even among individuals who were not hospitalized during the acute phase of the infection and increased in a graded fashion according to the care setting during the acute phase (non-hospitalized, hospitalized and admitted to intensive care). Our results provide evidence that the risk and 1-year burden of cardiovascular disease in survivors of acute COVID-19 are substantial. Care pathways of those surviving the acute episode of COVID-19 should include attention to cardiovascular health and disease.
|Nat Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|13||The role of NSP6 in the biogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 replication organelle |
|Nature||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|14||A global lipid map reveals host dependency factors conserved across SARS-CoV-2 variants |
|Nat Commun||2022|| ||LitCov|
|15||SARS-CoV-2 aerosol transmission in schools: the effectiveness of different interventions |
|Swiss Med Wkly||2022|| ||LitCov|
|16||Fatal Case of Rhabdomyolysis Post-COVID-19 Vaccine |
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19 pandemic has taken away the lives of many people (>4 million per WHO) around the world as of July 2021. With the advancement of the vaccine against COVID-19, in less than a year since the start of the pandemic, the infection rate has come under control in certain regions but is still rising in many more. However, with time, we are also learning a lot more about the adverse events related to the vaccine. This report documents the first fatal case of rhabdomyolysis potentially associated with the COVID-19 vaccine and supports the possibility that autoimmunity is a major risk factor for covid vaccine-related rhabdomyolysis.
|Infect Drug Resist||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|17||Long COVID after breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection |
|Nat Med||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|18||Investigation of the use of a sensor bracelet for the presymptomatic detection of changes in physiological parameters related to COVID-19: an interim analysis of a prospective cohort study (COVI-GAPP) |
|BMJ Open||2022|| ||LitCov|
|19||Covid-19: Omicron sub variants driving new wave of infections in UK |
|20||Vaccine-associated enhanced disease: Case definition and guidelines for data collection, analysis and presentation of immunization safety data |
This is a Brighton Collaboration Case Definition of the term “Vaccine Associated Enhanced Disease” to be utilized in the evaluation of adverse events following immunization. The Case Definition was developed by a group of experts convened by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) in the context of active development of vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and other emerging pathogens. The case definition format of the Brighton Collaboration was followed to develop a consensus definition and defined levels of certainty, after an exhaustive review of the literature and expert consultation. The document underwent peer review by the Brighton Collaboration Network and by selected Expert Reviewers prior to submission.
|Vaccine||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|21||Increased emergency cardiovascular events among under-40 population in Israel during vaccine rollout and third COVID-19 wave |
Cardiovascular adverse conditions are caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections and reported as side-effects of the COVID-19 vaccines. Enriching current vaccine safety surveillance systems with additional data sources may improve the understanding of COVID-19 vaccine safety. Using a unique dataset from Israel National Emergency Medical Services (EMS) from 2019 to 2021, the study aims to evaluate the association between the volume of cardiac arrest and acute coronary syndrome EMS calls in the 16–39-year-old population with potential factors including COVID-19 infection and vaccination rates. An increase of over 25% was detected in both call types during January–May 2021, compared with the years 2019–2020. Using Negative Binomial regression models, the weekly emergency call counts were significantly associated with the rates of 1st and 2nd vaccine doses administered to this age group but were not with COVID-19 infection rates. While not establishing causal relationships, the findings raise concerns regarding vaccine-induced undetected severe cardiovascular side-effects and underscore the already established causal relationship between vaccines and myocarditis, a frequent cause of unexpected cardiac arrest in young individuals. Surveillance of potential vaccine side-effects and COVID-19 outcomes should incorporate EMS and other health data to identify public health trends (e.g., increased in EMS calls), and promptly investigate potential underlying causes.
|Sci Rep||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|22||Suspected Cat-to-Human Transmission of SARS-CoV-2, Thailand, July-September 2021 |
|Emerg Infect Dis||2022|| ||LitCov|
|23||Increases in COVID-19 are unrelated to levels of vaccination across 68 countries and 2947 counties in the United States ||Eur J Epidemiol||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|24||SARS-CoV-2 is associated with changes in brain structure in UK Biobank |
There is strong evidence of brain-related abnormalities in COVID-19(1–13). However, it remains unknown whether the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection can be detected in milder cases, and whether this can reveal possible mechanisms contributing to brain pathology. Here we investigated brain changes in 785 participants of UK Biobank (aged 51–81 years) who were imaged twice using magnetic resonance imaging, including 401 cases who tested positive for infection with SARS-CoV-2 between their two scans—with 141 days on average separating their diagnosis and the second scan—as well as 384 controls. The availability of pre-infection imaging data reduces the likelihood of pre-existing risk factors being misinterpreted as disease effects. We identified significant longitudinal effects when comparing the two groups, including (1) a greater reduction in grey matter thickness and tissue contrast in the orbitofrontal cortex and parahippocampal gyrus; (2) greater changes in markers of tissue damage in regions that are functionally connected to the primary olfactory cortex; and (3) a greater reduction in global brain size in the SARS-CoV-2 cases. The participants who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 also showed on average a greater cognitive decline between the two time points. Importantly, these imaging and cognitive longitudinal effects were still observed after excluding the 15 patients who had been hospitalised. These mainly limbic brain imaging results may be the in vivo hallmarks of a degenerative spread of the disease through olfactory pathways, of neuroinflammatory events, or of the loss of sensory input due to anosmia. Whether this deleterious effect can be partially reversed, or whether these effects will persist in the long term, remains to be investigated with additional follow-up.
|Nature||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|25||Covid-19: How has the pandemic differed across the four UK nations? |
|26||Covid-19: Omicron infection is poor booster to immunity, study finds |
|27||Alopecia areata after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination ||JAAD Case Rep||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|28||BA.2.12.1, BA.4 and BA.5 escape antibodies elicited by Omicron infection |
|29||Adverse events of special interest and mortality following vaccination with mRNA (BNT162b2) and inactivated (CoronaVac) SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in Hong Kong: A retrospective study |
|PLoS Med||2022|| ||LitCov|
|30||What do we know about covid vaccines and preventing transmission? |
|BMJ||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|31||Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness and perinatal outcomes of COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy |
Safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is a particular concern affecting vaccination uptake by this vulnerable group. Here we evaluated evidence from 23 studies including 117,552 COVID-19 vaccinated pregnant people, almost exclusively with mRNA vaccines. We show that the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 7 days after second dose was 89·5% (95% CI 69·0-96·4%, 18,828 vaccinated pregnant people, I(2) = 73·9%). The risk of stillbirth was significantly lower in the vaccinated cohort by 15% (pooled OR 0·85; 95% CI 0·73–0·99, 66,067 vaccinated vs. 424,624 unvaccinated, I(2) = 93·9%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, earlier gestation at birth, placental abruption, pulmonary embolism, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal death, intensive care unit admission, lower birthweight Z-score, or neonatal intensive care unit admission (p > 0.05 for all). COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in pregnancy appears to be safe and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth.
|Nat Commun||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|32||The unintended consequences of COVID-19 vaccine policy: why mandates, passports and restrictions may cause more harm than good |
Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and differential restrictions based on vaccination status. While these policies have prompted ethical, scientific, practical, legal and political debate, there has been limited evaluation of their potential unintended consequences. Here, we outline a comprehensive set of hypotheses for why these policies may ultimately be counterproductive and harmful. Our framework considers four domains: (1) behavioural psychology, (2) politics and law, (3) socioeconomics, and (4) the integrity of science and public health. While current vaccines appear to have had a significant impact on decreasing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality burdens, we argue that current mandatory vaccine policies are scientifically questionable and are likely to cause more societal harm than good. Restricting people’s access to work, education, public transport and social life based on COVID-19 vaccination status impinges on human rights, promotes stigma and social polarisation, and adversely affects health and well-being. Current policies may lead to a widening of health and economic inequalities, detrimental long-term impacts on trust in government and scientific institutions, and reduce the uptake of future public health measures, including COVID-19 vaccines as well as routine immunisations. Mandating vaccination is one of the most powerful interventions in public health and should be used sparingly and carefully to uphold ethical norms and trust in institutions. We argue that current COVID-19 vaccine policies should be re-evaluated in light of the negative consequences that we outline. Leveraging empowering strategies based on trust and public consultation, and improving healthcare services and infrastructure, represent a more sustainable approach to optimising COVID-19 vaccination programmes and, more broadly, the health and well-being of the public.
|BMJ Glob Health||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|33||Epidemic management and control through risk-dependent individual contact interventions |
|PLoS Comput Biol||2022|| ||LitCov|
|34||Assessing the burden of COVID-19 in developing countries: systematic review, meta-analysis and public policy implications |
INTRODUCTION: The infection fatality rate (IFR) of COVID-19 has been carefully measured and analysed in high-income countries, whereas there has been no systematic analysis of age-specific seroprevalence or IFR for developing countries. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature to identify all COVID-19 serology studies in developing countries that were conducted using representative samples collected by February 2021. For each of the antibody assays used in these serology studies, we identified data on assay characteristics, including the extent of seroreversion over time. We analysed the serology data using a Bayesian model that incorporates conventional sampling uncertainty as well as uncertainties about assay sensitivity and specificity. We then calculated IFRs using individual case reports or aggregated public health updates, including age-specific estimates whenever feasible. RESULTS: In most locations in developing countries, seroprevalence among older adults was similar to that of younger age cohorts, underscoring the limited capacity that these nations have to protect older age groups. Age-specific IFRs were roughly 2 times higher than in high-income countries. The median value of the population IFR was about 0.5%, similar to that of high-income countries, because disparities in healthcare access were roughly offset by differences in population age structure. CONCLUSION: The burden of COVID-19 is far higher in developing countries than in high-income countries, reflecting a combination of elevated transmission to middle-aged and older adults as well as limited access to adequate healthcare. These results underscore the critical need to ensure medical equity to populations in developing countries through provision of vaccine doses and effective medications.
|BMJ Glob Health||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|35||Immune-mediated hepatitis with the Moderna vaccine, no longer a coincidence but confirmed ||J Hepatol||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|36||High-dimensional characterization of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 |
|Nature||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|37||SARS-CoV-2 from Patient with Coronavirus Disease, United States |
The etiologic agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, was identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in January 2020. A patient in the United States was given a diagnosis of infection with this virus by the state of Washington and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on January 20, 2020. We isolated virus from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens from this patient and characterized the viral sequence, replication properties, and cell culture tropism. We found that the virus replicates to high titer in Vero-CCL81 cells and Vero E6 cells in the absence of trypsin. We also deposited the virus into 2 virus repositories, making it broadly available to the public health and research communities. We hope that open access to this reagent will expedite development of medical countermeasures.
|Emerg Infect Dis||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|38||Covid-19 failures show the US needs a national public health system, commission finds |
|39||The covid waves continue to come |
|40||Hydroxychloroquine is effective and consistently so when provided early, for COVID-19: a systematic review |
Introduction Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has shown efficacy against COVID-19 in some but not all studies. We hypothesized that systematic review would show HCQ to be: effective against COVID-19, more effective when used earlier, not associated with worsening, and safe. Methods We searched PubMed, Cochrane, EmBase, Google Scholar, and Google for all reports on hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for COVID-19 patients. This included pre-prints and preliminary reports on larger COVID-19 studies. We examined the studies for efficacy, time of administration and safety. Results HCQ was found consistently effective against COVID-19 when used early, in the outpatient setting. It was found overall effective also including inpatient studies. No unbiased study found worse outcomes with HCQ use. No mortality or serious safety adverse event was found Conclusions HCQ is consistently effective against COVID-19 when used early in the outpatient setting, it is overall effective against COVID-19, it has not produced worsening, it is safe.
|New Microbes New Infect||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|41||Purpuric Rash and Thrombocytopenia After the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 Vaccine |
The mRNA-1273 vaccine, popularly called the Moderna vaccine is being widely administered in the United States for the prevention of COVID-19 infection since December 2020. Mild to moderate intensity side effects like low-grade fever, myalgia, chills and malaise were reported in the trials related to the vaccine. With this case report, we report a case of purpuric rash and thrombocytopenia after receiving the first dose of the m-RNA-1273 vaccine. The patient, in this case, is a 60-year-old male patient who received the first vaccine dose and within two days, he developed diffuse papular rash associated with some thrombocytopenia. He had a history of tobacco use, Hepatitis C liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease stage 4, untreated hypertension and systolic congestive heart failure at the baseline. With review of the limited literature related to the vaccine and its side effect profile and with no other etiology explaining the sudden onset of rash, we attribute this thrombocytopenia and purpuric rash as the side effects of the mRNA-1273 vaccine.
|Cureus||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|42||Spectrum of neurological complications following COVID-19 vaccination |
COVID-19 vaccines have brought us a ray of hope to effectively fight against deadly pandemic of COVID-19 and hope to save lives. Many vaccines have been granted emergency use authorizations by many countries. Post-authorization, a wide spectrum of neurological complications is continuously being reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Neurological adverse events following vaccination are generally mild and transient, like fever and chills, headache, fatigue, myalgia and arthralgia, or local injection site effects like swelling, redness, or pain. The most devastating neurological post-vaccination complication is cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Cerebral venous sinus is frequently reported in females of childbearing age, generally following adenovector-based vaccination. Another major neurological complication of concern is Bell’s palsy that was reported dominantly following mRNA vaccine administration. Acute transverse myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy are other unexpected neurological adverse events that occur as result of phenomenon of molecular mimicry. Reactivation of herpes zoster in many persons, following administration of mRNA vaccines, has been also recorded. Considering the enormity of recent COVID-19-vaccinated population, the number of serious neurological events is miniscule. Large collaborative prospective studies are needed to prove or disprove causal association between vaccine and neurological adverse events occurring vaccination.
|Neurol Sci||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|43||In silico drug repurposing for coronavirus: screening known HCV drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein bound to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (6M0J) |
|Mol Divers||2022|| ||LitCov|
|44||Psychosis Associated With COVID-19 Vaccination |
|Prim Care Companion CNS Disord||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|45||Smartphone apps in the COVID-19 pandemic |
|Nat Biotechnol||2022|| ||LitCov|
|46||Antigenic evolution will lead to new SARS-CoV-2 variants with unpredictable severity |
The comparatively milder infections with the Omicron variant and higher levels of population immunity have raised hopes for a weakening of the pandemic. We argue that the lower severity of Omicron is a coincidence and that ongoing rapid antigenic evolution is likely to produce new variants that may escape immunity and be more severe.
|Nat Rev Microbiol||2022|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|47||Melatonin drugs inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entry into the brain and virus induced damage of cerebral small vessels |
|Cell Mol Life Sci||2022|| ||LitCov|
|48||Neuroimaging manifestations in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection: a multinational, multicenter collaborative study |
BACKGROUND: The CNS manifestations of COVID-19 in children have primarily been described in case reports, which limit the ability to appreciate the full spectrum of the disease in paediatric patients. We aimed to identify enough cases that could be evaluated in aggregate to better understand the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 in the paediatric population. METHODS: An international call for cases of children with encephalopathy related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and abnormal neuroimaging findings was made. Clinical history and associated plasma and cerebrospinal fluid data were requested. These data were reviewed by a central neuroradiology panel, a child neurologist, and a paediatric infectious diseases expert. The children were categorised on the basis of their time of probable exposure to SARS-CoV-2. In addition, cases were excluded when a direct link to SARS-CoV-2 infection could not be established or an established alternate diagnostic cause could be hypothesised. The accepted referral centre imaging data, from ten countries, were remotely reviewed by a central panel of five paediatric neuroradiologists and a consensus opinion obtained on the imaging findings. FINDINGS: 38 children with neurological disease related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified from France (n=13), the UK (n=8), the USA (n=5), Brazil (n=4), Argentina (n=4), India (n=2), Peru (n=1), and Saudi Arabia (n=1). Recurring patterns of disease were identified, with neuroimaging abnormalities ranging from mild to severe. The most common imaging patterns were postinfectious immune-mediated acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-like changes of the brain (16 patients), myelitis (eight patients), and neural enhancement (13 patients). Cranial nerve enhancement could occur in the absence of corresponding neurological symptoms. Splenial lesions (seven patients) and myositis (four patients) were predominantly observed in children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome. Cerebrovascular complications in children were less common than in adults. Significant pre-existing conditions were absent and most children had favourable outcomes. However, fatal atypical CNS co-infections developed in four previously healthy children infected with SARS-CoV-2. INTERPRETATION: Acute-phase and delayed-phase SARS-CoV-2-related CNS abnormalities are seen in children. Recurring patterns of disease and atypical neuroimaging manifestations can be found and should be recognised being as potentially due to SARS-CoV-2 infection as an underlying aetiological factor. Studies of paediatric specific cohorts are needed to better understand the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the CNS at presentation and on long-term follow-up in children. FUNDING: American Society of Pediatric Neuroradiology, University of Manchester (Manchester, UK). VIDEO ABSTRACT:
|Lancet Child Adolesc Health||2020|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|49||Covid-19: Researcher blows the whistle on data integrity issues in Pfizer's vaccine trial |
|BMJ||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|
|50||How effective is a mask in preventing COVID-19 infection? |
The main clinical characteristics of COVID‐19 are respiratory symptoms that can lead to serious cardiovascular damages and severe worsening of other medical conditions. One of the major strategies in preparedness and response to COVID 19 is effective utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE) among which the masks of different kinds are on the top of the list especially for activities in the public places. However, the underlying mechanisms of masks in preventing virus transmission have not been well identified and the current experimental data still show inconsistent outcomes that may mislead the public. For instance, the early understanding of the mask functions was limited especially in the escalating phase of the COVID 19 pandemic, resulting in quite controversial remarks on masks. Although extensive studies in mask functions have been carried out ever since the COVID‐19 outbreaks, most of the investigations appear to have focused on exhalation isolation of individuals who may have been infected with the disease. Less emphasis was laid on inhalation protection from virus transmission, an important aspect that undergirds the public health policies and protective strategies. This review provides the most up‐to‐date information on the transmission modes of COVID‐19 virus in terms of droplets and aerosols. The roles of masks in disease prevention and transmission reduction are evaluated on various types, structures and functions. More important, both aspects of exhalation isolation and inhalation protection are discussed based on virus transmission modes and the effectiveness of different types of masks under varied environmental conditions.
|Med Devices Sens||2021|| ||LitCov and CORD-19|