|201||Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated With Self-reported Psychological Distress Among Children and Adolescents During the COVID-19 Pandemic in China |
IMPORTANCE: Schools have been suspended nationwide in 188 countries, and classes have shifted to home-based distance learning models to control the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Additional information is needed to determine mental health status among school-aged children and adolescents during this public health crisis and the risk factors associated with psychological distress during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess self-reported psychological distress among school-aged children and adolescents associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study using data from a survey on the mental health of school-aged children and adolescents in Guangdong province, China, conducted by using a stratified cluster random sampling method between March 8 to 30, 2020. To estimate outcomes associated with location of districts, only data from students with internet protocol addresses and current addresses in Guangdong were included. Data were analyzed from April 5 to July 20, 2020. EXPOSURE: Home-based distance learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: The main outcome was self-reported psychological distress, measured using the total score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire of 3 or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors associated with mental health status. Odds ratios (ORs) were used to analyze the associations of factors with psychological distress. RESULTS: Among 1 310 600 students who completed the survey, 1 199 320 students (mean [SD] age, 12.04 [3.01] years; 619 144 [51.6%] boys) were included in the final analysis. A total of 126 355 students (10.5%) self-reported psychological distress. Compared with students in primary school, high school students had increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.15-1.23]). Compared with students who wore a face mask frequently, students who never wore a face mask had increased risk of psychological distress (OR, 2.59 [95% CI, 2.41-2.79]). Additionally, students who spent less than 0.5 hours exercising had increased odds of self-reported psychological distress compared with students who spent more than 1 hour exercising (OR, 1.64 [95% CI, 1.61-1.67]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These findings suggest that the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress among students during the COVID-19 pandemic was relatively high. Frequency of wearing a face mask and time spent exercising were factors associated with mental health. Therefore, it may be necessary for governments, schools, and families to pay attention to the mental health of school-aged children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and take corresponding countermeasures to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on students’ mental health.
|JAMA Netw Open||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|202||Treatment of 5 Critically Ill Patients With COVID-19 With Convalescent Plasma |
|JAMA||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|203||Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in a MERS-CoV Endemic Area |
Background: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) reported 170,639 cases and 1430 deaths from COVID-19 since the first case emerged in the country on March 2 through June 25, 2020. The objective of this report is to describe the characteristics and outcome observed among 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the largest academic hospital in KSA, and assess co-infection with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Methods: This single-center case series data included select epidemiological, clinical, radiological features and laboratory findings of all confirmed hospitalized cases of COVID-19 in King Saud University Medical City (KSUMC), Riyadh, KSA, from March 22 until May 31, 2020, followed through June 6, 2020. We conducted retrospective analysis of listed data from 99 hospitalized patients and present characteristics and factors associated with severity in percentages and univariate odds ratios. Cases were confirmed using nasopharyngeal or throat swab by real-time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and MERS-CoV by RT-PCR. Results: The 99 hospitalized COVID-19 patients included in this analysis constitute 16% of 632 positive SARS-CoV-2 among 6633 persons who were tested at the KSUMC (positivity rate, 9.4%). MERS-CoV PCR was negative in all 99 patients tested. The majority of these 99 hospitalized patients were males (66%), had a mean age of 44 years (range, 19–87), and a quarter (25.3%) were health care workers. Patients with comorbid conditions accounted for 52.5% of patients including the 8.1% who were asymptomatic; diabetes mellitus being the most frequent (31.3%), followed by hypertension (22.2%). The most common presenting symptoms were fever (67.7%), cough (60.6%), dyspnea (43.4%), upper respiratory symptoms (27.3%), fatigue (26.3%), diarrhea (19.2%) and loss of smell (9.1%). The clinical conditions among these 99 patients included upper respiratory tract infection (47.5%), abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers a fifth (21%) of patients had moderate pneumonia, while 7% had severe pneumonia with 22.2% requiring admission to the intensive care unit and 12.1% died. Late presentation with severe disease, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, high inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, ferritin, and procalcitonin), and end organ damage (high creatinine or high aspartate aminotransferase) were predictors for admission to critical care unit or died. Conclusion: We observed no MERS-CoV co-infection in this early cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients who were relatively young, more than half had comorbid conditions, presented with fever and/or cough, an abnormal chest X-ray, lymphopenia, and high inflammatory markers. Given MERS-CoV endemicity in the country, co-monitoring of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection is critical.
|J Epidemiol Glob Health||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|204||Pathology of neonatal calf diarrhea induced by a coronavirus-like agent |
|205||A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (inactivated, Vero cell): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial |
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to evaluate the efficacy of an inactivated and aluminium hydroxide adsorbed SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (Sinovac, China) in voluntary participants after 14 days of the second dose against RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 cases. The secondary objectives include evaluating the efficacy after at least one dose of the vaccine against RT-PCR confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 cases; the efficacy of two doses of the vaccine on the rates of hospitalization and death; the safety of the vaccine including adverse reactions up to one year after the 2(nd) dose of vaccination; and the immunogenicity of the vaccine and its duration up to 120 days. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled case driven clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of the vaccine. The study is planned to be carried out within two separate cohorts in voluntary participants aged between 18-59 years old. The first cohort includes healthcare professionals actively working in healthcare units, who are assumed to have higher risk of acquiring COVID-19, and the second cohort includes other immunocompetent subjects in the same age group, who are at a regular risk for COVID-19 disease. In Cohort 1, healthcare professionals will be randomized to receive two intramuscular doses of investigational product or the placebo in a 1:1 ratio and they will be monitored for 12 months by active surveillance of COVID-19. In Cohort 2, immunocompetent subjects will be randomized to receive vaccine or the placebo in a 2:1 ratio. PARTICIPANTS: Healthcare professionals of both genders, including medical doctors, nurses, cleaners, hospital technicians, and administrative personnel who work in any department of a healthcare unit and immunocompetent individuals of both genders are included. Pregnant (confirmed by positive beta-hCG test) and breastfeeding women as well as those intending to become pregnant within three months after vaccination are excluded. Other exclusion criteria include history of COVID-19 test positivity (PCR or immunoglobulin test results), any form of immunosuppressive therapy including corticosteroids within 6 months, history of bleeding disorders, asplenia, and administration of any form of immunoglobulins or blood products within 3 months. Exclusion criteria for the second dose include any serious adverse events related with the vaccine, anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity after vaccination, or any confirmed or suspected autoimmune or immunosuppressive disease (including HIV infection). Participants are only included after signing the voluntary informed consent form, ensuring cooperation in visits, undergoing screening for evaluation, and conforming to all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All clinical sites are located in Turkey. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: The vaccine was manufactured by Sinovac Research & Development Co., Ltd. It is a preparation made from a novel coronavirus (strain CZ02) grown in the kidney cell cultures (Vero Cell) of the African green monkey and contains inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus, aluminium hydroxide, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and sodium chloride. A dose of 0.5 mL contains 600 SU of SARS-CoV-2 virus antigen. The placebo contains aluminium hydroxide, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and sodium chloride (0.5mL/dose). Scheduled visits and additional unscheduled weekly visits will be performed for the first 13 weeks and neutralizing antibody test, IgG test, T-Cell activation test, pregnancy test, and RT-PCR tests along with total antibody test will be performed. Adverse events and serious adverse events during the follow-up will be recorded on diary cards. Diary cards will collect information on the timing and severity of COVID-19 symptoms and solicited adverse events recorded by the subjects during one-year follow-up period. All serious adverse events will be managed and necessary treatment will be ensured according to the local regulations. All serious adverse events following vaccination will be reported to the ethics committee, the Ministry of Health, and the study sponsor within 24 hours of detection. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary efficacy endpoint is the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 disease confirmed by RT-PCR two weeks after the second dose of vaccination. Secondary efficacy endpoints are the incidence of hospitalization/mortality rates among one or two dose regimens, duration of immunogenicity rates up to 120 days, the seroconversion rate, the seropositivity rate, neutralizing antibody titer, and IgG levels 14 days after each dose of vaccination. The primary safety endpoint is the severity and frequency of local and systemic adverse reactions during the period of one week after vaccination. The study would be terminated if more than 15% of the subjects have grade ≥3 adverse events related to vaccination including local reactions. RANDOMISATION: Eligible subjects will be randomized at their Study Day 0 to two study groups using an Interactive Web Response System (IWRS; developed by Omega CRO, Ankara, Turkey) in both risk groups. The IWRS system customizes the randomization algorithm. After enrolment in the study, each participant will be randomly assigned to either of the two treatment arms at a ratio of 1:1 in the high-risk group and at a ratio of 2:1 in the normal risk group. Each enrolled participant will be assigned to a code and will receive the treatment labelled with the code. BLINDING (MASKING): The trial is a double-blind study to avoid introducing bias. The blinding may be broken by the investigator in the event of a medical emergency in which knowledge of the identity of the study vaccine is critical for management of the subject’s immediate treatment. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board is to be contacted in case of breaking the blinding for a study object. The blood samples will be taken from both placebo and vaccinated groups, in order not to break the blinding. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The study is planned to be carried out with two separate cohorts. The Cohort 1 includes healthcare professionals working in healthcare units and the Cohort 2 consists of immunocompetent subjects having normal risk for COVID-19 disease. The Cohort 2 will be initiated after the evaluation of the interim safety report of the Cohort 1 by the Data and Safety Monitoring Board. Both cohorts will be followed-up via RT-PCR to confirm symptomatic COVID-19 cases. If the clinical efficacy of the vaccine is shown in the Cohort 1 or 2, the subjects randomized into the placebo arm will also be vaccinated. In the Cohort 1, 588 subjects should be included in both arms with the assumption that the risk of infection with COVID-19 will be 5% for the placebo arm and 2% for the vaccine arm in the high-risk group. Considering 10% of drop-out rate and 5% of seropositivity or PCR positivity at baseline, 680 subjects should be screened at both arms of the Cohort 1. Group sample sizes of 7545 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and 3773 placebo suits at a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the difference in population proportions with a width equal to 1.0%, when the estimated incidence rate for vaccinated group is 1.0% and the estimated incidence rate for placebo group is 2.0%. Drop-out rate is assumed to be 10% and seropositivity or PCR positivity at baseline is assumed to be 5%; accordingly, 13000 participants are needed to be enrolled totally in both cohorts. The remaining 11640 subjects will be screened in the Cohort 2 and eligible subjects will be randomized at a ratio of 2:1. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 6.0 – 15 October 2020. Recruitment started on 15.09.2020 and is expected to end on February 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04582344. Registered 8 October 2020 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol of the trial is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13063-021-05180-1.
|Trials||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|206||COVID-19-Related Mental Health Effects in the Workplace: A Narrative Review |
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has deeply altered social and working environments in several ways. Social distancing policies, mandatory lockdowns, isolation periods, and anxiety of getting sick, along with the suspension of productive activity, loss of income, and fear of the future, jointly influence the mental health of citizens and workers. Workplace aspects can play a crucial role on moderating or worsening mental health of people facing this pandemic scenario. The purpose of this literature review is to deepen the psychological aspects linked to workplace factors, following the epidemic rise of COVID-19, in order to address upcoming psychological critical issues in the workplaces. We performed a literature search using Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus, selecting papers focusing on workers’ psychological problems that can be related to the workplace during the pandemic. Thirty-five articles were included. Mental issues related to the health emergency, such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and sleep disorders are more likely to affect healthcare workers, especially those on the frontline, migrant workers, and workers in contact with the public. Job insecurity, long periods of isolation, and uncertainty of the future worsen the psychological condition, especially in younger people and in those with a higher educational background. Multiple organizational and work-related interventions can mitigate this scenario, such as the improvement of workplace infrastructures, the adoption of correct and shared anti-contagion measures, including regular personal protective equipment (PPE) supply, and the implementation of resilience training programs. This review sets the basis for a better understanding of the psychological conditions of workers during the pandemic, integrating individual and social perspectives, and providing insight into possible individual, social, and occupational approaches to this “psychological pandemic”.
|Int J Environ Res Public Healt||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|207||Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial |
BACKGROUND: The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might be curtailed by vaccination. We assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a viral vectored coronavirus vaccine that expresses the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial in five trial sites in the UK of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) as control. Healthy adults aged 18–55 years with no history of laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or of COVID-19-like symptoms were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 at a dose of 5 × 10(10) viral particles or MenACWY as a single intramuscular injection. A protocol amendment in two of the five sites allowed prophylactic paracetamol to be administered before vaccination. Ten participants assigned to a non-randomised, unblinded ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost group received a two-dose schedule, with the booster vaccine administered 28 days after the first dose. Humoral responses at baseline and following vaccination were assessed using a standardised total IgG ELISA against trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a muliplexed immunoassay, three live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays (a 50% plaque reduction neutralisation assay [PRNT(50)]; a microneutralisation assay [MNA(50), MNA(80), and MNA(90)]; and Marburg VN), and a pseudovirus neutralisation assay. Cellular responses were assessed using an ex-vivo interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The co-primary outcomes are to assess efficacy, as measured by cases of symptomatic virologically confirmed COVID-19, and safety, as measured by the occurrence of serious adverse events. Analyses were done by group allocation in participants who received the vaccine. Safety was assessed over 28 days after vaccination. Here, we report the preliminary findings on safety, reactogenicity, and cellular and humoral immune responses. The study is ongoing, and was registered at ISRCTN, 15281137, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606. FINDINGS: Between April 23 and May 21, 2020, 1077 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=543) or MenACWY (n=534), ten of whom were enrolled in the non-randomised ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost group. Local and systemic reactions were more common in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and many were reduced by use of prophylactic paracetamol, including pain, feeling feverish, chills, muscle ache, headache, and malaise (all p<0·05). There were no serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, spike-specific T-cell responses peaked on day 14 (median 856 spot-forming cells per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IQR 493–1802; n=43). Anti-spike IgG responses rose by day 28 (median 157 ELISA units [EU], 96–317; n=127), and were boosted following a second dose (639 EU, 360–792; n=10). Neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 32 (91%) of 35 participants after a single dose when measured in MNA(80) and in 35 (100%) participants when measured in PRNT(50). After a booster dose, all participants had neutralising activity (nine of nine in MNA(80) at day 42 and ten of ten in Marburg VN on day 56). Neutralising antibody responses correlated strongly with antibody levels measured by ELISA (R(2)=0·67 by Marburg VN; p<0·001). INTERPRETATION: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 showed an acceptable safety profile, and homologous boosting increased antibody responses. These results, together with the induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, support large-scale evaluation of this candidate vaccine in an ongoing phase 3 programme. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Thames Valley and South Midland's NIHR Clinical Research Network, and the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner site Gießen-Marburg-Langen.
|Lancet||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|208||Lung pathology of fatal severe acute respiratory syndrome |
BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel infectious disease with global impact. A virus from the family Coronaviridae has been identified as the cause, but the pathogenesis is still unclear. METHODS: Post-mortem tissue samples from six patients who died from SARS in February and March, 2003, and an open lung biopsy from one of these patients were studied by histology and virology. Only one full autopsy was done. Evidence of infection with the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and human metapneumovirus was sought by reverse-transcriptase PCR and serology. Pathological samples were examined by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. FINDINGS: All six patients had serological evidence of recent infection with SARS-CoV. Diffuse alveolar damage was common but not universal. Morphological changes identified were bronchial epithelial denudation, loss of cilia, and squamous metaplasia. Secondary bacterial pneumonia was present in one case. A giant-cell infiltrate was seen in four patients, with a pronounced increase in macrophages in the alveoli and the interstitium of the lung. Haemophagocytosis was present in two patients. The alveolar pneumocytes also showed cytomegaly with granular amphophilic cytoplasm. The patient for whom full autopsy was done had atrophy of the white pulp of the spleen. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells corresponding to coronavirus. INTERPRETATION: SARS is associated with epithelial-cell proliferation and an increase in macrophages in the lung. The presence of haemophagocytosis supports the contention that cytokine dysregulation may account, at least partly, for the severity of the clinical disease. The case definition of SARS should acknowledge the range of lung pathology associated with this disease. Published online May 16, 2003 http://image.thelancet.com/extras/03art4347web.pdf
|209||Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure |
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the most severe form of acute lung injury, is a devastating clinical syndrome with a high mortality rate (30–60%) (refs 1–3). Predisposing factors for ARDS are diverse(1,3) and include sepsis, aspiration, pneumonias and infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus(4,5). At present, there are no effective drugs for improving the clinical outcome of ARDS(1,2,3). Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are homologues with different key functions in the renin–angiotensin system(6,7,8). ACE cleaves angiotensin I to generate angiotensin II, whereas ACE2 inactivates angiotensin II and is a negative regulator of the system. ACE2 has also recently been identified as a potential SARS virus receptor and is expressed in lungs(9,10). Here we report that ACE2 and the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT(2)) protect mice from severe acute lung injury induced by acid aspiration or sepsis. However, other components of the renin–angiotensin system, including ACE, angiotensin II and the angiotensin II type 1a receptor (AT(1)a), promote disease pathogenesis, induce lung oedemas and impair lung function. We show that mice deficient for Ace show markedly improved disease, and also that recombinant ACE2 can protect mice from severe acute lung injury. Our data identify a critical function for ACE2 in acute lung injury, pointing to a possible therapy for a syndrome affecting millions of people worldwide every year. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nature03712) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
|210||Are we ready for pandemic influenza? |
|211||Quantitative SARS-CoV-2 Serology in Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C) |
|Pediatrics||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|212||Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong |
BACKGROUND: Health authorities worldwide, especially in the Asia Pacific region, are seeking effective public-health interventions in the continuing epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We assessed the epidemiology of SARS in Hong Kong. METHODS: We included 1425 cases reported up to April 28, 2003. An integrated database was constructed from several sources containing information on epidemiological, demographic, and clinical variables. We estimated the key epidemiological distributions: infection to onset, onset to admission, admission to death, and admission to discharge. We measured associations between the estimated case fatality rate and patients’age and the time from onset to admission. FINDINGS: After the initial phase of exponential growth, the rate of confirmed cases fell to less than 20 per day by April 28. Public-health interventions included encouragement to report to hospital rapidly after the onset of clinical symptoms, contact tracing for confirmed and suspected cases, and quarantining, monitoring, and restricting the travel of contacts. The mean incubation period of the disease is estimated to be 6.4 days (95% Cl 5.2–7.7). The mean time from onset of clinical symptoms to admission to hospital varied between 3 and 5 days, with longer times earlier in the epidemic. The estimated case fatality rate was 13.2% (9.8–16.8) for patients younger than 60 years and 43.3% (35.2–52.4) for patients aged 60 years or older assuming a parametric γ distribution. A non-parametric method yielded estimates of 6.8% (4.0–9.6) and 55.0% (45.3–64.7), respectively. Case clusters have played an important part in the course of the epidemic. INTERPRETATION: Patients’age was strongly associated with outcome. The time between onset of symptoms and admission to hospital did not alter outcome, but shorter intervals will be important to the wider population by restricting the infectious period before patients are placed in quarantine. Published online May 7, 2003 http://image.thelancet.com/extras/03art4453web.pdf
|213||The severe acute respiratory syndrome |
|N Engl J Med||2003||CORD-19|
|214||Virtually Perfect? Telemedicine for Covid-19 |
|N Engl J Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|215||Covid-19 in Critically Ill Patients in the Seattle Region-Case Series |
BACKGROUND: Community transmission of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) was detected in the state of Washington in February 2020. METHODS: We identified patients from nine Seattle-area hospitals who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with confirmed infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical data were obtained through review of medical records. The data reported here are those available through March 23, 2020. Each patient had at least 14 days of follow-up. RESULTS: We identified 24 patients with confirmed Covid-19. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 64±18 years, 63% were men, and symptoms began 7±4 days before admission. The most common symptoms were cough and shortness of breath; 50% of patients had fever on admission, and 58% had diabetes mellitus. All the patients were admitted for hypoxemic respiratory failure; 75% (18 patients) needed mechanical ventilation. Most of the patients (17) also had hypotension and needed vasopressors. No patient tested positive for influenza A, influenza B, or other respiratory viruses. Half the patients (12) died between ICU day 1 and day 18, including 4 patients who had a do-not-resuscitate order on admission. Of the 12 surviving patients, 5 were discharged home, 4 were discharged from the ICU but remained in the hospital, and 3 continued to receive mechanical ventilation in the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 3 weeks of the Covid-19 outbreak in the Seattle area, the most common reasons for admission to the ICU were hypoxemic respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation, hypotension requiring vasopressor treatment, or both. Mortality among these critically ill patients was high. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.)
|N Engl J Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|216||SARS-CoV-2 and Microbiological Diagnostic Dynamics in COVID-19 Pandemic |
|Mikrobiyol Bul||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|217||Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens |
|JAMA||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|218||A multinational, multicenter study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak |
Abstract Objective Since the declaration of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak as pandemic, there are reports on the increased prevalence of physical symptoms observed in the general population. We investigated the association between psychological outcomes and physical symptoms among healthcare workers. Methods Healthcare workers from 5 major hospitals, involved in the care for COVID-19 patients, in Singapore and India were invited to participate in a study by performing a self-administered questionnaire within the period of February 19 to April 17, 2020. Healthcare workers included doctors, nurses, allied healthcare workers, administrators, clerical staff and maintenance workers. This questionnaire collected information on demographics, medical history, symptom prevalence in the past month, Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R) instrument. The prevalence of physical symptoms displayed by healthcare workers and the associations between physical symptoms and psychological outcomes of depression, anxiety, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were evaluated. Results Out of the 906 healthcare workers who participated in the survey, 48 (5.3%) screened positive for moderate to very-severe depression, 79 (8.7%) for moderate to extremely-severe anxiety, 20 (2.2%) for moderate to extremely-severe stress, and 34 (3.8%) for moderate to severe levels of psychological distress. The commonest reported symptom was headache (32.3%), with a large number of participants (33.4%) reporting more than four symptoms. Participants who had experienced symptoms in the preceding month were more likely to be older, have pre-existing comorbidities and a positive screen for depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD. After adjusting for age, gender and comorbidities, it was found that depression (OR 2.79, 95% CI 1.54–5.07, p = 0.001), anxiety (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.36–3.48, p = 0.001), stress (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.27–7.41, p = 0.13), and PTSD (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.12–4.35, p = 0.023) remained significantly associated with the presence of physical symptoms experienced in the preceding month. Linear regression revealed that the presence of physical symptoms was associated with higher mean scores in the IES-R, DASS Anxiety, Stress and Depression subscales. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a significant association between the prevalence of physical symptoms and psychological outcomes among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 outbreak. We postulate that this association may be bi-directional, and that timely psychological interventions for healthcare workers with physical symptoms should be considered once an infection has been excluded.
|Brain Behav Immun||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|219||Critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome |
|220||Solitaire flow restoration device vs the Merci Retriever in patients with acute ischemic stroke (SWIFT): a randomised, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial |
|221||Top Concerns of Tweeters During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Infoveillance Study |
BACKGROUND: The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is taking a toll on the world’s health care infrastructure as well as the social, economic, and psychological well-being of humanity. Individuals, organizations, and governments are using social media to communicate with each other on a number of issues relating to the COVID-19 pandemic. Not much is known about the topics being shared on social media platforms relating to COVID-19. Analyzing such information can help policy makers and health care organizations assess the needs of their stakeholders and address them appropriately. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the main topics posted by Twitter users related to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Leveraging a set of tools (Twitter’s search application programming interface (API), Tweepy Python library, and PostgreSQL database) and using a set of predefined search terms (“corona,” “2019-nCov,” and “COVID-19”), we extracted the text and metadata (number of likes and retweets, and user profile information including the number of followers) of public English language tweets from February 2, 2020, to March 15, 2020. We analyzed the collected tweets using word frequencies of single (unigrams) and double words (bigrams). We leveraged latent Dirichlet allocation for topic modeling to identify topics discussed in the tweets. We also performed sentiment analysis and extracted the mean number of retweets, likes, and followers for each topic and calculated the interaction rate per topic. RESULTS: Out of approximately 2.8 million tweets included, 167,073 unique tweets from 160,829 unique users met the inclusion criteria. Our analysis identified 12 topics, which were grouped into four main themes: origin of the virus; its sources; its impact on people, countries, and the economy; and ways of mitigating the risk of infection. The mean sentiment was positive for 10 topics and negative for 2 topics (deaths caused by COVID-19 and increased racism). The mean for tweet topics of account followers ranged from 2722 (increased racism) to 13,413 (economic losses). The highest mean of likes for the tweets was 15.4 (economic loss), while the lowest was 3.94 (travel bans and warnings). CONCLUSIONS: Public health crisis response activities on the ground and online are becoming increasingly simultaneous and intertwined. Social media provides an opportunity to directly communicate health information to the public. Health systems should work on building national and international disease detection and surveillance systems through monitoring social media. There is also a need for a more proactive and agile public health presence on social media to combat the spread of fake news.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|222||Human Health and Ocean Pollution |
BACKGROUND: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficiently recognized and inadequately controlled component of global pollution. It poses serious threats to human health and well-being. The nature and magnitude of these impacts are only beginning to be understood. GOALS: (1) Broadly examine the known and potential impacts of ocean pollution on human health. (2) Inform policy makers, government leaders, international organizations, civil society, and the global public of these threats. (3) Propose priorities for interventions to control and prevent pollution of the seas and safeguard human health. METHODS: Topic-focused reviews that examine the effects of ocean pollution on human health, identify gaps in knowledge, project future trends, and offer evidence-based guidance for effective intervention. ENVIRONMENTAL FINDINGS: Pollution of the oceans is widespread, worsening, and in most countries poorly controlled. It is a complex mixture of toxic metals, plastics, manufactured chemicals, petroleum, urban and industrial wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural runoff, and sewage. More than 80% arises from land-based sources. It reaches the oceans through rivers, runoff, atmospheric deposition and direct discharges. It is often heaviest near the coasts and most highly concentrated along the coasts of low- and middle-income countries. Plastic is a rapidly increasing and highly visible component of ocean pollution, and an estimated 10 million metric tons of plastic waste enter the seas each year. Mercury is the metal pollutant of greatest concern in the oceans; it is released from two main sources – coal combustion and small-scale gold mining. Global spread of industrialized agriculture with increasing use of chemical fertilizer leads to extension of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) to previously unaffected regions. Chemical pollutants are ubiquitous and contaminate seas and marine organisms from the high Arctic to the abyssal depths. ECOSYSTEM FINDINGS: Ocean pollution has multiple negative impacts on marine ecosystems, and these impacts are exacerbated by global climate change. Petroleum-based pollutants reduce photosynthesis in marine microorganisms that generate oxygen. Increasing absorption of carbon dioxide into the seas causes ocean acidification, which destroys coral reefs, impairs shellfish development, dissolves calcium-containing microorganisms at the base of the marine food web, and increases the toxicity of some pollutants. Plastic pollution threatens marine mammals, fish, and seabirds and accumulates in large mid-ocean gyres. It breaks down into microplastic and nanoplastic particles containing multiple manufactured chemicals that can enter the tissues of marine organisms, including species consumed by humans. Industrial releases, runoff, and sewage increase frequency and severity of HABs, bacterial pollution, and anti-microbial resistance. Pollution and sea surface warming are triggering poleward migration of dangerous pathogens such as the Vibrio species. Industrial discharges, pharmaceutical wastes, pesticides, and sewage contribute to global declines in fish stocks. HUMAN HEALTH FINDINGS: Methylmercury and PCBs are the ocean pollutants whose human health effects are best understood. Exposures of infants in utero to these pollutants through maternal consumption of contaminated seafood can damage developing brains, reduce IQ and increase children’s risks for autism, ADHD and learning disorders. Adult exposures to methylmercury increase risks for cardiovascular disease and dementia. Manufactured chemicals – phthalates, bisphenol A, flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, many of them released into the seas from plastic waste – can disrupt endocrine signaling, reduce male fertility, damage the nervous system, and increase risk of cancer. HABs produce potent toxins that accumulate in fish and shellfish. When ingested, these toxins can cause severe neurological impairment and rapid death. HAB toxins can also become airborne and cause respiratory disease. Pathogenic marine bacteria cause gastrointestinal diseases and deep wound infections. With climate change and increasing pollution, risk is high that Vibrio infections, including cholera, will increase in frequency and extend to new areas. All of the health impacts of ocean pollution fall disproportionately on vulnerable populations in the Global South – environmental injustice on a planetary scale. CONCLUSIONS: Ocean pollution is a global problem. It arises from multiple sources and crosses national boundaries. It is the consequence of reckless, shortsighted, and unsustainable exploitation of the earth’s resources. It endangers marine ecosystems. It impedes the production of atmospheric oxygen. Its threats to human health are great and growing, but still incompletely understood. Its economic costs are only beginning to be counted. Ocean pollution can be prevented. Like all forms of pollution, ocean pollution can be controlled by deploying data-driven strategies based on law, policy, technology, and enforcement that target priority pollution sources. Many countries have used these tools to control air and water pollution and are now applying them to ocean pollution. Successes achieved to date demonstrate that broader control is feasible. Heavily polluted harbors have been cleaned, estuaries rejuvenated, and coral reefs restored. Prevention of ocean pollution creates many benefits. It boosts economies, increases tourism, helps restore fisheries, and improves human health and well-being. It advances the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). These benefits will last for centuries. RECOMMENDATIONS: World leaders who recognize the gravity of ocean pollution, acknowledge its growing dangers, engage civil society and the global public, and take bold, evidence-based action to stop pollution at source will be critical to preventing ocean pollution and safeguarding human health. Prevention of pollution from land-based sources is key. Eliminating coal combustion and banning all uses of mercury will reduce mercury pollution. Bans on single-use plastic and better management of plastic waste reduce plastic pollution. Bans on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have reduced pollution by PCBs and DDT. Control of industrial discharges, treatment of sewage, and reduced applications of fertilizers have mitigated coastal pollution and are reducing frequency of HABs. National, regional and international marine pollution control programs that are adequately funded and backed by strong enforcement have been shown to be effective. Robust monitoring is essential to track progress. Further interventions that hold great promise include wide-scale transition to renewable fuels; transition to a circular economy that creates little waste and focuses on equity rather than on endless growth; embracing the principles of green chemistry; and building scientific capacity in all countries. Designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) will safeguard critical ecosystems, protect vulnerable fish stocks, and enhance human health and well-being. Creation of MPAs is an important manifestation of national and international commitment to protecting the health of the seas.
|Ann Glob Health||2020||CORD-19|
|223||Respiratory viruses and exacerbations of asthma in adults |
|224||Neurological manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 and other coronaviruses: A narrative review for clinicians |
INTRODUCTION: The past two decades have been marked by three epidemics linked to emerging coronaviruses. The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the existence of neurological manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and raised the question of the neuropathogenicity of coronaviruses. The aim of this review was to summarize the current data about neurological manifestations and diseases linked to human coronaviruses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Articles have been identified by searches of PubMed and Google scholar up to September 25, 2020, using a combination of coronavirus and neurology search terms and adding relevant references in the articles. RESULTS: We found five cohorts providing prevalence data of neurological symptoms among a total of 2533 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and articles focusing on COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations including a total of 580 patients. Neurological symptoms involved up to 73% of COVID-19 hospitalized patients, and were mostly headache, myalgias and impaired consciousness. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations reported in COVID-19 were mostly non-specific encephalopathies that represented between 13% and 40% of all neurological manifestations; post-infectious syndromes including acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM, n = 13), acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE, n = 4), Bickerstaff's encephalitis (n = 5), generalized myoclonus (n = 3) and acute transverse myelitis (n = 7); other encephalitis including limbic encephalitis (n = 9) and miscellaneous encephalitis with variable radiologic findings (n = 26); acute cerebrovascular diseases including ischemic strokes (between 1.3% and 4.7% of COVID-19 patients), hemorrhagic strokes (n = 17), cerebral venous thrombosis (n = 8) and posterior reversible encephalopathy (n = 5). Peripheral nervous system (PNS) manifestations reported in COVID-19 were the following: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n = 31) and variants including Miller Fisher syndrome (n = 3), polyneuritis cranialis (n = 2) and facial diplegia (n = 2); isolated oculomotor neuropathy (n = 6); critical illness myopathy (n = 6). Neuropathological studies in COVID-19 patients demonstrated different patterns of CNS damage, mostly ischemic and hemorrhagic changes with few cases of inflammatory injuries. Only one case suggested SARS-CoV-2 infiltration in endothelial and neural cells. We found 10 case reports or case series describing 22 patients with neurological manifestations associated with other human coronaviruses. Among them we found four MERS patients with ADEM or Bickerstaff's encephalitis, two SARS patients with encephalitis who had a positive SARS-CoV PCR in cerebrospinal fluid, five patients with ischemic strokes associated with SARS, eight MERS patients with critical illness neuromyopathy and one MERS patient with Guillain–Barré Syndrome. An autopsy study on SARS-CoV patients demonstrated the presence of the virus in the brain of eight patients. CONCLUSION: The wide range of neurological manifestations and diseases associated with SARS-CoV-2 is consistent with multiple pathogenic pathways including post-infectious mechanisms, septic-associated encephalopathies, coagulopathy or endothelitis. There was no definite evidence to support direct neuropathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.
|Rev Neurol (Paris)||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|225||Bats: important reservoir hosts of emerging viruses |
|Clin Microbiol Rev||2006||CORD-19|
|226||The Potential Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from Patients with Negative RT-PCR Swab Tests to Others: Two Related Clusters of COVID-19 Outbreak |
|Jpn J Infect Dis||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|227||Did social isolation during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic have an impact on the lifestyles of citizens? |
|Epidemiol Prev||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|228||A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing |
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 2.3 million people, killed over 160,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption(1,2). There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven clinical efficacy, nor are there vaccines for its prevention, and these efforts are hampered by limited knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To address this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells and identified the human proteins physically associated with each using affinity-purification mass spectrometry (AP-MS), identifying 332 high-confidence SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Among these, we identify 66 druggable human proteins or host factors targeted by 69 compounds (29 FDA-approved drugs, 12 drugs in clinical trials, and 28 preclinical compounds). Screening a subset of these in multiple viral assays identified two sets of pharmacological agents that displayed antiviral activity: inhibitors of mRNA translation and predicted regulators of the Sigma1 and Sigma2 receptors. Further studies of these host factor targeting agents, including their combination with drugs that directly target viral enzymes, could lead to a therapeutic regimen to treat COVID-19.
|Nature||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|229||Re-emergence of fatal human influenza A subtype H5N1 disease |
Human disease associated with influenza A subtype H5N1 reemerged in January, 2003, for the first time since an outbreak in Hong Kong in 1997. Patients with H5N1 disease had unusually high serum concentrations of chemokines (eg, interferon induced protein-10 [IP-10] and monokine induced by interferon γ [MIG]). Taken together with a previous report that H5N1 influenza viruses induce large amounts of proinflam-matory cytokines from macrophage cultures in vitro, our findings suggest that cytokine dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of H5N1 disease. Development of vaccines against influenza A (H5N1) virus should be made a priority.
|230||A new serotype of infectious bronchitis virus responsible for respiratory disease in Arkansas broiler flocks |
|231||Determining the optimal strategy for reopening schools, the impact of test and trace interventions and the risk of occurrence of a second COVID-19 epidemic wave in the UK: a modelling study |
BACKGROUND: As lockdown measures to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection begin to ease in the UK, it is important to assess the impact of any changes in policy, including school reopening and broader relaxation of physical distancing measures. We aimed to use an individual-based model to predict the impact of two possible strategies for reopening schools to all students in the UK from September, 2020, in combination with different assumptions about relaxation of physical distancing measures and the scale-up of testing. METHODS: In this modelling study, we used Covasim, a stochastic individual-based model for transmission of SARS-CoV-2, calibrated to the UK epidemic. The model describes individuals' contact networks stratified into household, school, workplace, and community layers, and uses demographic and epidemiological data from the UK. We simulated six different scenarios, representing the combination of two school reopening strategies (full time and a part-time rota system with 50% of students attending school on alternate weeks) and three testing scenarios (68% contact tracing with no scale-up in testing, 68% contact tracing with sufficient testing to avoid a second COVID-19 wave, and 40% contact tracing with sufficient testing to avoid a second COVID-19 wave). We estimated the number of new infections, cases, and deaths, as well as the effective reproduction number (R) under different strategies. In a sensitivity analysis to account for uncertainties within the stochastic simulation, we also simulated infectiousness of children and young adults aged younger than 20 years at 50% relative to older ages (20 years and older). FINDINGS: With increased levels of testing (between 59% and 87% of symptomatic people tested at some point during an active SARS-CoV-2 infection, depending on the scenario), and effective contact tracing and isolation, an epidemic rebound might be prevented. Assuming 68% of contacts could be traced, we estimate that 75% of individuals with symptomatic infection would need to be tested and positive cases isolated if schools return full-time in September, or 65% if a part-time rota system were used. If only 40% of contacts could be traced, these figures would increase to 87% and 75%, respectively. However, without these levels of testing and contact tracing, reopening of schools together with gradual relaxing of the lockdown measures are likely to induce a second wave that would peak in December, 2020, if schools open full-time in September, and in February, 2021, if a part-time rota system were adopted. In either case, the second wave would result in R rising above 1 and a resulting second wave of infections 2·0–2·3 times the size of the original COVID-19 wave. When infectiousness of children and young adults was varied from 100% to 50% of that of older ages, we still found that a comprehensive and effective test–trace–isolate strategy would be required to avoid a second COVID-19 wave. INTERPRETATION: To prevent a second COVID-19 wave, relaxation of physical distancing, including reopening of schools, in the UK must be accompanied by large-scale, population-wide testing of symptomatic individuals and effective tracing of their contacts, followed by isolation of diagnosed individuals. FUNDING: None.
|Lancet Child Adolesc Health||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|232||Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in Gansu province, China |
|Ann Palliat Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|233||Tripartite Combination of Candidate Pandemic Mitigation Agents: Vitamin D, Quercetin and Estradiol Manifest Properties of Medicinal Agents for Targeted Mitigation of the COVID-19 Pandemic Defined by Genomics-Guided Tracing of SARS-CoV-2 Targets in Human Cells |
Genes required for SARS-CoV-2 entry into human cells, ACE2 and FURIN, were employed as baits to build genomic-guided molecular maps of upstream regulatory elements, their expression and functions in the human body, and pathophysiologically relevant cell types. Repressors and activators of the ACE2 and FURIN genes were identified based on the analyses of gene silencing and overexpression experiments as well as relevant transgenic mouse models. Panels of repressors (VDR; GATA5; SFTPC; HIF1a) and activators (HMGA2; INSIG1; RUNX1; HNF4a; JNK1/c-FOS) were then employed to identify existing drugs manifesting in their effects on gene expression signatures of potential coronavirus infection mitigation agents. Using this strategy, vitamin D and quercetin have been identified as putative 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mitigation agents. Quercetin has been identified as one of top-scoring candidate therapeutics in the supercomputer SUMMIT drug-docking screen and Gene Set Enrichment Analyses (GSEA) of expression profiling experiments (EPEs), indicating that highly structurally similar quercetin, luteolin, and eriodictyol could serve as scaffolds for the development of efficient inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In agreement with this notion, quercetin alters the expression of 98 of 332 (30%) of human genes encoding protein targets of SARS-CoV-2, thus potentially interfering with functions of 23 of 27 (85%) of the SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins in human cells. Similarly, Vitamin D may interfere with functions of 19 of 27 (70%) of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins by altering expression of 84 of 332 (25%) of human genes encoding protein targets of SARS-CoV-2. Considering the potential effects of both quercetin and vitamin D, the inference could be made that functions of 25 of 27 (93%) of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in human cells may be altered. GSEA and EPEs identify multiple drugs, smoking, and many disease conditions that appear to act as putative coronavirus infection-promoting agents. Discordant patterns of testosterone versus estradiol impacts on SARS-CoV-2 targets suggest a plausible molecular explanation of the apparently higher male mortality during the coronavirus pandemic. Estradiol, in contrast with testosterone, affects the expression of the majority of human genes (203 of 332; 61%) encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets, thus potentially interfering with functions of 26 of 27 SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. A hypothetical tripartite combination consisting of quercetin/vitamin D/estradiol may affect expression of 244 of 332 (73%) human genes encoding SARS-CoV-2 targets. Of major concern is the ACE2 and FURIN expression in many human cells and tissues, including immune cells, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 may infect a broad range of cellular targets in the human body. Infection of immune cells may cause immunosuppression, long-term persistence of the virus, and spread of the virus to secondary targets. Present analyses and numerous observational studies indicate that age-associated vitamin D deficiency may contribute to the high mortality of older adults and the elderly. Immediate availability for targeted experimental and clinical interrogations of potential COVID-19 pandemic mitigation agents, namely vitamin D and quercetin, as well as of the highly selective (Ki, 600 pm) intrinsically specific FURIN inhibitor (a1-antitrypsin Portland (a1-PDX), is considered an encouraging factor. Observations reported in this contribution are intended to facilitate follow-up targeted experimental studies and, if warranted, randomized clinical trials to identify and validate therapeutically viable interventions to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, gene expression profiles of vitamin D and quercetin activities and their established safety records as over-the-counter medicinal substances strongly argue that they may represent viable candidates for further considerations of their potential utility as COVID-19 pandemic mitigation agents. In line with the results of present analyses, a randomized interventional clinical trial evaluating effects of estradiol on severity of the coronavirus infection in COVID19+ and presumptive COVID19+ patients and two interventional randomized clinical trials evaluating effects of vitamin D on prevention and treatment of COVID-19 were listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website.
|Biomedicines||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|234||Cardiovascular Implications of Fatal Outcomes of Patients With COVID-19 |
IMPORTANCE: Increasing numbers of confirmed cases and mortality rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are occurring in several countries and continents. Information regarding the impact of cardiovascular complication on fatal outcome is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) and myocardial injury with fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective single-center case series analyzed patients with COVID-19 at the Seventh Hospital of Wuhan City, China, from January 23, 2020, to February 23, 2020. Analysis began February 25, 2020. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, and treatments were collected and analyzed in patients with and without elevation of troponin T (TnT) levels. RESULT: Among 187 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 144 patients (77%) were discharged and 43 patients (23%) died. The mean (SD) age was 58.50 (14.66) years. Overall, 66 (35.3%) had underlying CVD including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, and 52 (27.8%) exhibited myocardial injury as indicated by elevated TnT levels. The mortality during hospitalization was 7.62% (8 of 105) for patients without underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 13.33% (4 of 30) for those with underlying CVD and normal TnT levels, 37.50% (6 of 16) for those without underlying CVD but elevated TnT levels, and 69.44% (25 of 36) for those with underlying CVD and elevated TnTs. Patients with underlying CVD were more likely to exhibit elevation of TnT levels compared with the patients without CVD (36 [54.5%] vs 16 [13.2%]). Plasma TnT levels demonstrated a high and significantly positive linear correlation with plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (β = 0.530, P < .001) and N-terminal pro–brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels (β = 0.613, P < .001). Plasma TnT and NT-proBNP levels during hospitalization (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 0.307 [0.094-0.600]; 1902.00 [728.35-8100.00]) and impending death (median [IQR], 0.141 [0.058-0.860]; 5375 [1179.50-25695.25]) increased significantly compared with admission values (median [IQR], 0.0355 [0.015-0.102]; 796.90 [401.93-1742.25]) in patients who died (P = .001; P < .001), while no significant dynamic changes of TnT (median [IQR], 0.010 [0.007-0.019]; 0.013 [0.007-0.022]; 0.011 [0.007-0.016]) and NT-proBNP (median [IQR], 352.20 [174.70-636.70]; 433.80 [155.80-1272.60]; 145.40 [63.4-526.50]) was observed in survivors (P = .96; P = .16). During hospitalization, patients with elevated TnT levels had more frequent malignant arrhythmias, and the use of glucocorticoid therapy (37 [71.2%] vs 69 [51.1%]) and mechanical ventilation (41 [59.6%] vs 14 [10.4%]) were higher compared with patients with normal TnT levels. The mortality rates of patients with and without use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was 36.8% (7 of 19) and 25.6% (43 of 168). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Myocardial injury is significantly associated with fatal outcome of COVID-19, while the prognosis of patients with underlying CVD but without myocardial injury is relatively favorable. Myocardial injury is associated with cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. Inflammation may be a potential mechanism for myocardial injury. Aggressive treatment may be considered for patients at high risk of myocardial injury.
|JAMA Cardiol||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|235||Comparative full-length genome sequence analysis of 14 SARS coronavirus isolates and common mutations associated with putative origins of infection |
BACKGROUND: The cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has been identified as a new coronavirus. Whole genome sequence analysis of various isolates might provide an indication of potential strain differences of this new virus. Moreover, mutation analysis will help to develop effective vaccines. METHODS: We sequenced the entire SARS viral genome of cultured isolates from the index case (SIN2500) presenting in Singapore, from three primary contacts (SIN2774, SIN2748, and SIN2677), and one secondary contact (SIN2679). These sequences were compared with the isolates from Canada (TOR2), Hong Kong (CUHK-W1 and HKU39849), Hanoi (URBANI), Guangzhou (GZ01), and Beijing (BJ01, BJ02, BJ03, BJ04). FINDINGS: We identified 129 sequence variations among the 14 isolates, with 16 recurrent variant sequences. Common variant sequences at four loci define two distinct genotypes of the SARS virus. One genotype was linked with infections originating in Hotel M in Hong Kong, the second contained isolates from Hong Kong, Guangzhou, and Beijing with no association with Hotel M (p<0.0001). Moreover, other common sequence variants further distinguished the geographical origins of the isolates, especially between Singapore and Beijing. INTERPRETATION: Despite the recent onset of the SARS epidemic, genetic signatures are emerging that partition the worldwide SARS viral isolates into groups on the basis of contact source history and geography. These signatures can be used to trace sources of infection. In addition, a common variant associated with a non-conservative aminoacid change in the S1 region of the spike protein, suggests that immunological pressures might be starting to influence the evolution of the SARS virus in human populations. Published online May 9, 2003 http://image.thelancet.com/extras/03art4454web.pdf
|236||SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and research gaps: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 interaction with the ACE2 receptor and implications for therapy |
The COVID-19 pandemic is an emerging threat to global public health. While our current understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis is limited, a better understanding will help us develop efficacious treatment and prevention strategies for COVID-19. One potential therapeutic target is angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 primarily catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I (Ang I) to a nonapeptide angiotensin or the conversion of angiotensin II (Ang II) to angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) and has direct effects on cardiac function and multiple organs via counter-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Significant to COVID-19, ACE2 is postulated to serve as a major entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2 in human cells, as it does for SARS-CoV. Many infected individuals develop COVID-19 with fever, cough, and shortness of breath that can progress to pneumonia. Disease progression promotes the activation of immune cells, platelets, and coagulation pathways that can lead to multiple organ failure and death. ACE2 is expressed by epithelial cells of the lungs at high level, a major target of the disease, as seen in post-mortem lung tissue of patients who died with COVID-19, which reveals diffuse alveolar damage with cellular fibromyxoid exudates bilaterally. Comparatively, ACE2 is expressed at low level by vascular endothelial cells of the heart and kidney but may also be targeted by the virus in severe COVID-19 cases. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection downregulates ACE2 expression, which may also play a critical pathogenic role in COVID-19. Importantly, targeting ACE2/Ang 1-7 axis and blocking ACE2 interaction with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 to curtail SARS-CoV-2 infection are becoming very attractive therapeutics potential for treatment and prevention of COVID-19. Here, we will discuss the following subtopics: 1) ACE2 as a receptor of SARS-CoV-2; 2) clinical and pathological features of COVID-19; 3) role of ACE2 in the infection and pathogenesis of SARS; 4) potential pathogenic role of ACE2 in COVID-19; 5) animal models for pathological studies and therapeutics; and 6) therapeutics development for COVID-19.
|Theranostics||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|237||COVID-19 Outbreak in an Urban Hemodialysis Unit |
RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Hemodialysis patients are at increased risk for COVID-19 transmission due, in part, to difficulty maintaining physical distancing. Our hemodialysis unit experienced a COVID-19 outbreak despite following symptom-based screening guidelines. We describe the course of the COVID-19 outbreak and the infection control measures taken for mitigation. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 237 maintenance hemodialysis patients and 93 hemodialysis staff at a single hemodialysis centre in Toronto, Canada. EXPOSURE: Universal screening of patients and staff with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was detection of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal samples from patients and staff using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) . ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Descriptive statistics were used for clinical characteristics and the primary outcome. RESULTS: Eleven (4.6%) of 237 hemodialysis patients and 11 of 93 (12%) staff members had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2. Among individuals testing positive, 12 of 22 (55%) were asymptomatic at time of testing, and 7 of 22 (32%) were asymptomatic for the duration of follow-up. One patient was hospitalized at the time of SARS-CoV-2 infection and four additional patients with positive tests were subsequently hospitalized. Two patients (18%) required admission to the intensive care unit. After 30 days follow-up no patients had died or required mechanical ventilation. No hemodialysis staff required hospitalization. Universal droplet and contact precautions were implemented during the outbreak. Hemodialysis staff with SARS-CoV-2 infection were placed on home quarantine regardless of symptom status. Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection including asymptomatic individuals were treated with droplet and contact precautions until confirmation of negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing. Analysis of the outbreak identified two index cases with subsequent nosocomial transmission within the dialysis unit and in shared shuttle buses to the hemodialysis unit. LIMITATIONS: Single centre study. CONCLUSIONS: Universal SARS-CoV-2 testing and universal droplet and contact precautions in the setting of an outbreak appeared to be effective in preventing further transmission.
|Am J Kidney Dis||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|238||Australia in 2030: what is our path to health for all? |
|Med J Aust||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|239||The Incubation Period of COVID-19 From Publicly Reported Confirmed Cases: Estimation and Application |
BACKGROUND: A novel human coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was identified in China in December 2019. There is limited support for many of its key epidemiologic features, including the incubation period for clinical disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]), which has important implications for surveillance and control activities. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the length of the incubation period of COVID-19 and describe its public health implications. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of confirmed COVID-19 cases reported between 4 January 2020 and 24 February 2020. SETTING: News reports and press releases from 50 provinces, regions, and countries outside Wuhan, Hubei province, China. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection outside Hubei province, China. MEASUREMENTS: Patient demographic characteristics and dates and times of possible exposure, symptom onset, fever onset, and hospitalization. RESULTS: There were 181 confirmed cases with identifiable exposure and symptom onset windows to estimate the incubation period of COVID-19. The median incubation period was estimated to be 5.1 days (95% CI, 4.5 to 5.8 days), and 97.5% of those who develop symptoms will do so within 11.5 days (CI, 8.2 to 15.6 days) of infection. These estimates imply that, under conservative assumptions, 101 out of every 10 000 cases (99th percentile, 482) will develop symptoms after 14 days of active monitoring or quarantine. LIMITATION: Publicly reported cases may overrepresent severe cases, the incubation period for which may differ from that of mild cases. CONCLUSION: This work provides additional evidence for a median incubation period for COVID-19 of approximately 5 days, similar to SARS. Our results support current proposals for the length of quarantine or active monitoring of persons potentially exposed to SARS-CoV-2, although longer monitoring periods might be justified in extreme cases. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, and Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.
|Ann Intern Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|240||Associations of Mental Health and Personal Preventive Measure Compliance With Exposure to COVID-19 Information During Work Resumption Following the COVID-19 Outbreak in China: Cross-Sectional Survey Study |
BACKGROUND: Risk and crisis communication plays an essential role in public health emergency responses. The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered spontaneous and intensive media attention, which has affected people’s adoption of personal preventive measures and their mental health. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between exposure to COVID-19–specific information and mental health (depression and sleep quality) and self-reported compliance with personal preventive measures (face mask wearing and hand sanitizing). We also tested whether these associations were moderated by thoughtful consideration of the veracity of the information to which people were exposed. METHODS: A cross-sectional, closed web-based survey was conducted among a sample of 3035 factory workers at the beginning of work resumption following the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen, China. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling design was used for recruitment. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used for the analyses. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable moderate-to-severe depression was 170/3035 (5.6%), while that of good or excellent sleep quality was 2110/3035 (69.5%). The prevalence of self-reported consistent face mask wearing in public places was 2903/3035 (95.7%), while that of sanitizing hands every time after returning from public spaces or touching public installations was 2151/3035 (70.9%). Of the 3035 respondents, 1013 to 1638 (33.3% to 54.0%) reported >1 hour of daily exposure to COVID-19–specific information through web-based media and television. After controlling for significant background variables, higher information exposure via television and via newspapers and magazines was associated with better sleep quality and higher compliance with hand sanitizing. Higher exposure via unofficial web-based media was associated with higher compliance with hand sanitizing but was also associated with higher depressive symptoms. In contrast, higher exposure through face-to-face communication was associated with higher depressive symptoms, worse sleep quality, and lower compliance with hand sanitizing. Exposure to information about positive outcomes for patients with COVID-19, development of vaccines and effective treatments, and heroic stories about frontline health care workers were associated with both better mental health and higher compliance with preventive measures. Higher overall information exposure was associated with higher depressive symptoms among participants who were less likely to carefully consider the veracity of the information to which they were exposed; it was also associated with better sleep quality among people who reported more thoughtful consideration of information veracity. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides empirical evidence of how the amount, sources, and contents of information to which people were exposed influenced their mental health and compliance with personal preventive measures at the initial phase of work resumption in China. Thoughtful consideration of information quality was found to play an important moderating role. Our findings may inform strategic risk communication by government and public health authorities during the COVID-19 pandemic.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|241||Systematic Review of Clinical Insights into Novel Coronavirus Pandemic: Persisting Challenges in US Rural Population |
(1) Introduction. A recent viral outbreak of novel coronavirus (CoVID-19) was declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its global public health concern. There has been an aggressive growth in the number of emerging cases suggesting rapid spread of the virus. Since the first reported case of CoVID-19, there has been vast progress in understanding the dynamics of CoVID-19. However, there is an increasing evidence of epidemiological disparity in disease burden between urban and rural areas, with rural areas having minimal pandemic preparedness and their own healthcare challenges. Therefore, this review aims to provide insight on the pathogenesis and the transmission dynamics of CoVID-19 along with pharmacological and non-pharmacological intervention strategies to mitigate the clinical manifestation of this virus. This review also aims to assess existing challenges of the CoVID-19 pandemic in rural areas based on past pandemic experiences and the effect on rural population. (2) Methods. A literature review was conducted using databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, ProQuest, and Google Scholar, along with information from governmental organizations such as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO). (3) Results. The causative virus, with its likely zoonotic origin, has demonstrated high pathogenicity in humans through increasing human-to-human transmission leading to extensive mitigation strategies, including patient quarantine and mass “social distancing” measures. Although the clinical manifestation of symptoms is mild in majority of the virus-inflicted population, critical patients may present with pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, exacerbated by pre-existing comorbidities, eventually leading to death. While effective coronavirus disease (CoVID-19)-specific vaccines and drugs are under clinical trials, several pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have been adapted to manage symptoms and curtail the effect of the virus to prevent increasing morbidity and mortality. Several persisting challenges have been noted for mitigating CoVID-19 in rural areas, including the poor healthcare infrastructure, health literacy, pandemic preparedness along with the fact that majority of rural population are frail subjects with pre-existing comorbidities. (4) Discussion. The increasing rate of incidence of CoVID-19 presents its own challenges, burdening healthcare institutions and the global economy, and impacting the physical and mental health of people worldwide. Given the clinical insights into CoVID-19 and the challenges presented in this review for the U.S. rural population, mitigation strategies should be designed accordingly to minimize the morbidity and mortality of this contagion.
|Int J Environ Res Public Healt||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|242||The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases |
Infectious diseases have for centuries ranked with wars and famine as major challenges to human progress and survival. They remain among the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Against a constant background of established infections, epidemics of new and old infectious diseases periodically emerge, greatly magnifying the global burden of infections. Studies of these emerging infections reveal the evolutionary properties of pathogenic microorganisms and the dynamic relationships between microorganisms, their hosts and the environment.
|243||Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of severe sepsis and septic shock: 2012 |
|Crit Care Med||2013||CORD-19|
|244||Remdesivir for the Treatment of Covid-19-Final Report |
BACKGROUND: Although several therapeutic agents have been evaluated for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), none have yet been shown to be efficacious. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous remdesivir in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 with evidence of lower respiratory tract involvement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either remdesivir (200 mg loading dose on day 1, followed by 100 mg daily for up to 9 additional days) or placebo for up to 10 days. The primary outcome was the time to recovery, defined by either discharge from the hospital or hospitalization for infection-control purposes only. RESULTS: A total of 1063 patients underwent randomization. The data and safety monitoring board recommended early unblinding of the results on the basis of findings from an analysis that showed shortened time to recovery in the remdesivir group. Preliminary results from the 1059 patients (538 assigned to remdesivir and 521 to placebo) with data available after randomization indicated that those who received remdesivir had a median recovery time of 11 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 12), as compared with 15 days (95% CI, 13 to 19) in those who received placebo (rate ratio for recovery, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.55; P<0.001). The Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality by 14 days were 7.1% with remdesivir and 11.9% with placebo (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.04). Serious adverse events were reported for 114 of the 541 patients in the remdesivir group who underwent randomization (21.1%) and 141 of the 522 patients in the placebo group who underwent randomization (27.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Remdesivir was superior to placebo in shortening the time to recovery in adults hospitalized with Covid-19 and evidence of lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; ACTT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04280705.)
|N Engl J Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|245||Telehealth in school-based practice: Perceived viability to bridge global OT practitioner shortages prior to COVID-19 global health emergency |
|Work||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|246||SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load in Upper Respiratory Specimens of Infected Patients||N Engl J Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|247||The association of viral and bacterial respiratory infections with exacerbations of wheezing in young asthmatic children |
The relationship between exacerbations of wheezing and infection of the respiratory tract was studied prospectively in 32 young hospitalized asthmatic children. Of 139 episodes of wheezing, 58 (42 per cent) were associated with identifiable viral infections. There were 25 respiratory syncytial virus infections; wheezing occurred in 24 of these and pneumonia in 13. Parainfluenza type 2 infection appeared to be next most likely to be associated with wheezing, followed by coronavirus infection. Influenza A. (Hong Kong) was not associated with wheezing in any of the children. Infection with “pathogenic” bacteria was not statistically associated with wheezing.
|248||Adoption of Digital Technologies in Healthcare During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Systematic Review of Early Scientific Literature |
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is favoring digital transitions in many industries and in society as a whole. Health care organizations have responded to the first phase of the pandemic by rapidly adopting digital solutions and advanced technology tools. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to describe the digital solutions that have been reported in the early scientific literature to mitigate the impact of COVID-19 on individuals and health systems. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of early COVID-19–related literature (from January 1 to April 30, 2020) by searching MEDLINE and medRxiv with appropriate terms to find relevant literature on the use of digital technologies in response to the pandemic. We extracted study characteristics such as the paper title, journal, and publication date, and we categorized the retrieved papers by the type of technology and patient needs addressed. We built a scoring rubric by cross-classifying the patient needs with the type of technology. We also extracted information and classified each technology reported by the selected articles according to health care system target, grade of innovation, and scalability to other geographical areas. RESULTS: The search identified 269 articles, of which 124 full-text articles were assessed and included in the review after screening. Most of the selected articles addressed the use of digital technologies for diagnosis, surveillance, and prevention. We report that most of these digital solutions and innovative technologies have been proposed for the diagnosis of COVID-19. In particular, within the reviewed articles, we identified numerous suggestions on the use of artificial intelligence (AI)–powered tools for the diagnosis and screening of COVID-19. Digital technologies are also useful for prevention and surveillance measures, such as contact-tracing apps and monitoring of internet searches and social media usage. Fewer scientific contributions address the use of digital technologies for lifestyle empowerment or patient engagement. CONCLUSIONS: In the field of diagnosis, digital solutions that integrate with traditional methods, such as AI-based diagnostic algorithms based both on imaging and clinical data, appear to be promising. For surveillance, digital apps have already proven their effectiveness; however, problems related to privacy and usability remain. For other patient needs, several solutions have been proposed, such as telemedicine or telehealth tools. These tools have long been available, but this historical moment may actually be favoring their definitive large-scale adoption. It is worth taking advantage of the impetus provided by the crisis; it is also important to keep track of the digital solutions currently being proposed to implement best practices and models of care in future and to adopt at least some of the solutions proposed in the scientific literature, especially in national health systems, which have proved to be particularly resistant to the digital transition in recent years.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|249||Epidemiology, clinical course and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: a prospective cohort study |
BACKGROUND: Over 40 000 patients with COVID-19 have been hospitalised in New York City (NY, USA) as of April 28, 2020. Data on the epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in this setting are needed. METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study took place at two NewYork-Presbyterian hospitals affiliated with Columbia University Irving Medical Center in northern Manhattan. We prospectively identified adult patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to both hospitals from March 2 to April 1, 2020, who were diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and were critically ill with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure, and collected clinical, biomarker, and treatment data. The primary outcome was the rate of in-hospital death. Secondary outcomes included frequency and duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, frequency of vasopressor use and renal replacement therapy, and time to in-hospital clinical deterioration following admission. The relation between clinical risk factors, biomarkers, and in-hospital mortality was modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression. Follow-up time was right-censored on April 28, 2020 so that each patient had at least 28 days of observation. FINDINGS: Between March 2 and April 1, 2020, 1150 adults were admitted to both hospitals with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, of which 257 (22%) were critically ill. The median age of patients was 62 years (IQR 51–72), 171 (67%) were men. 212 (82%) patients had at least one chronic illness, the most common of which were hypertension (162 [63%]) and diabetes (92 [36%]). 119 (46%) patients had obesity. As of April 28, 2020, 101 (39%) patients had died and 94 (37%) remained hospitalised. 203 (79%) patients received invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 18 days (IQR 9–28), 170 (66%) of 257 patients received vasopressors and 79 (31%) received renal replacement therapy. The median time to in-hospital deterioration was 3 days (IQR 1–6). In the multivariable Cox model, older age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1·31 [1·09–1·57] per 10-year increase), chronic cardiac disease (aHR 1·76 [1·08–2·86]), chronic pulmonary disease (aHR 2·94 [1·48–5·84]), higher concentrations of interleukin-6 (aHR 1·11 [95%CI 1·02–1·20] per decile increase), and higher concentrations of D-dimer (aHR 1·10 [1·01–1·19] per decile increase) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. INTERPRETATION: Critical illness among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in New York City is common and associated with a high frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation, extrapulmonary organ dysfunction, and substantial in-hospital mortality. FUNDING: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, and the Columbia University Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research.
|Lancet||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|250||Social Media Use, eHealth Literacy, Disease Knowledge and Preventive Behaviors in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Cross-Sectional Study on Chinese Netizens |
BACKGROUND: Since its outbreak in January 2020, COVID-19 has quickly spread worldwide and has become a global pandemic. Social media platforms have been recognized as important tools for health-promoting practices in public health, and the use of social media is widespread among the public. However, little is known about the effects of social media use on health promotion during a pandemic such as COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to explore the predictive role of social media use on public preventive behaviors in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and how disease knowledge and eHealth literacy moderated the relationship between social media use and preventive behaviors. METHODS: A national web-based cross-sectional survey was conducted by a proportionate probability sampling among 802 Chinese internet users (“netizens”) in February 2020. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and hierarchical multiple regressions were employed to examine and explore the relationships among all the variables. RESULTS: Almost half the 802 study participants were male (416, 51.9%), and the average age of the participants was 32.65 years. Most of the 802 participants had high education levels (624, 77.7%), had high income >¥5000 (US $736.29) (525, 65.3%), were married (496, 61.8%), and were in good health (486, 60.6%). The average time of social media use was approximately 2 to 3 hours per day (mean 2.34 hours, SD 1.11), and the most frequently used media types were public social media (mean score 4.49/5, SD 0.78) and aggregated social media (mean score 4.07/5, SD 1.07). Social media use frequency (β=.20, P<.001) rather than time significantly predicted preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Respondents were also equipped with high levels of disease knowledge (mean score 8.15/10, SD 1.43) and eHealth literacy (mean score 3.79/5, SD 0.59). Disease knowledge (β=.11, P=.001) and eHealth literacy (β=.27, P<.001) were also significant predictors of preventive behaviors. Furthermore, eHealth literacy (P=.038) and disease knowledge (P=.03) positively moderated the relationship between social media use frequency and preventive behaviors, while eHealth literacy (β=.07) affected this relationship positively and disease knowledge (β=–.07) affected it negatively. Different social media types differed in predicting an individual’s preventive behaviors for COVID-19. Aggregated social media (β=.22, P<.001) was the best predictor, followed by public social media (β=.14, P<.001) and professional social media (β=.11, P=.002). However, official social media (β=.02, P=.597) was an insignificant predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Social media is an effective tool to promote behaviors to prevent COVID-19 among the public. Health literacy is essential for promotion of individual health and influences the extent to which the public engages in preventive behaviors during a pandemic. Our results not only enrich the theoretical paradigm of public health management and health communication but also have practical implications in pandemic control for China and other countries.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
(1) COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). 2020. Version 2022-06-02. Retrieved from https://ai2-semanticscholar-cord-19.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/historical_releases.html. Accessed 2022-06-05. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3715506
(2) Chen Q, Allot A, & Lu Z. (2020) Keep up with the latest coronavirus research, Nature 579:193 and Chen Q, Allot A, Lu Z. LitCovid: an open database of COVID-19 literature. Nucleic Acids Research. 2020. (version 2022-07-25)
(3) Currently tweets of June 23rd to June 29th 2022 have been considered.