\ BIP! Finder for COVID-19 - Impact-based ranking

BIP! Finder for COVID-19

This version of BIP! Finder aims to ease the exploration of COVID-19-related literature by enabling ranking articles based on various impact metrics.

Last Update: 18 - 01 - 2023 (628506 entries)

Provided impact measures:
Popularity: Citation-based measure reflecting the current impact.
Influence: Citation-based measure reflecting the total impact.
Reader Attention: The current number of Mendeley readers.
Social Media Attention: The number of recent tweets related to this article.
*More details on these impact measures can be found here.
Score interpretations:
Exceptional score (in top 0.01%).
Substantial score (in top 1%).
Average score (in bottom 99%).
Score not available.
Main data sources:
CORD-19 dataset(1) (list of papers)
LitCovid hub(2) (list of papers)
PMC & PubMed (citations)
Mendeley (number of readers)
COVID-19-TweetIDs(3) (tweets)

Use:  Impact  Relevance & Impact
101Psychological Distress and Coronavirus Fears During the Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States  


J Ment Health Policy Econ2020       LitCov and CORD-19
102The need for holistic, longitudinal and comparable, real-time assessment of the emotional, behavioral and societal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic across nations  


Psychiatriki2021       LitCov and CORD-19
103Rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection assay in comparison with real-time RT-PCR assay for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 in Thailand  

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Performance characteristics of the rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test should be evaluated and compared with the gold standard real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for diagnosis of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test, Standard™ Q COVID-19 Ag kit (SD Biosensor®, Republic of Korea), was compared with the real-time RT-PCR test, Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay (Seegene®, Korea) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens. Four hundred fifty-four respiratory samples (mainly nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were obtained from COVID-19 suspected cases and contact individuals, including pre-operative patients at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand during March–May 2020. RESULTS: Of 454 respiratory samples, 60 (13.2%) were positive, and 394 (86.8%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time RT-PCR assay. The duration from onset to laboratory test in COVID-19 suspected cases and contact individuals ranged from 0 to 14 days with a median of 3 days. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test’s sensitivity and specificity were 98.33% (95% CI, 91.06–99.96%) and 98.73% (95% CI, 97.06–99.59%), respectively. One false negative test result was from a sample with a high real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct), while five false positive test results were from specimens of pre-operative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid assay for SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection showed comparable sensitivity and specificity with the real-time RT-PCR assay. Thus, there is a potential use of this rapid and simple SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test as a screening assay.

Virol J2020       LitCov and CORD-19
104Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China  


JAMA Cardiol2020       LitCov and CORD-19
105Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the functional receptor for SARS‐CoV. Although ACE2 mRNA is known to be present in virtually all organs, its protein expression is largely unknown. Since identifying the possible route of infection has major implications for understanding the pathogenesis and future treatment strategies for SARS, the present study investigated the localization of ACE2 protein in various human organs (oral and nasal mucosa, nasopharynx, lung, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney, and brain). The most remarkable finding was the surface expression of ACE2 protein on lung alveolar epithelial cells and enterocytes of the small intestine. Furthermore, ACE2 was present in arterial and venous endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells in all organs studied. In conclusion, ACE2 is abundantly present in humans in the epithelia of the lung and small intestine, which might provide possible routes of entry for the SARS‐CoV. This epithelial expression, together with the presence of ACE2 in vascular endothelium, also provides a first step in understanding the pathogenesis of the main SARS disease manifestations. Copyright © 2004 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J Pathol2004       CORD-19
106Structure, Function and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein  

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S(1)/S(2) subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.

Cell2020       LitCov and CORD-19
107Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial  

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) might be curtailed by vaccination. We assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of a viral vectored coronavirus vaccine that expresses the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial in five trial sites in the UK of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared with a meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY) as control. Healthy adults aged 18–55 years with no history of laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection or of COVID-19-like symptoms were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 at a dose of 5 × 10(10) viral particles or MenACWY as a single intramuscular injection. A protocol amendment in two of the five sites allowed prophylactic paracetamol to be administered before vaccination. Ten participants assigned to a non-randomised, unblinded ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost group received a two-dose schedule, with the booster vaccine administered 28 days after the first dose. Humoral responses at baseline and following vaccination were assessed using a standardised total IgG ELISA against trimeric SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a muliplexed immunoassay, three live SARS-CoV-2 neutralisation assays (a 50% plaque reduction neutralisation assay [PRNT(50)]; a microneutralisation assay [MNA(50), MNA(80), and MNA(90)]; and Marburg VN), and a pseudovirus neutralisation assay. Cellular responses were assessed using an ex-vivo interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay. The co-primary outcomes are to assess efficacy, as measured by cases of symptomatic virologically confirmed COVID-19, and safety, as measured by the occurrence of serious adverse events. Analyses were done by group allocation in participants who received the vaccine. Safety was assessed over 28 days after vaccination. Here, we report the preliminary findings on safety, reactogenicity, and cellular and humoral immune responses. The study is ongoing, and was registered at ISRCTN, 15281137, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04324606. FINDINGS: Between April 23 and May 21, 2020, 1077 participants were enrolled and assigned to receive either ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (n=543) or MenACWY (n=534), ten of whom were enrolled in the non-randomised ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 prime-boost group. Local and systemic reactions were more common in the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group and many were reduced by use of prophylactic paracetamol, including pain, feeling feverish, chills, muscle ache, headache, and malaise (all p<0·05). There were no serious adverse events related to ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 group, spike-specific T-cell responses peaked on day 14 (median 856 spot-forming cells per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IQR 493–1802; n=43). Anti-spike IgG responses rose by day 28 (median 157 ELISA units [EU], 96–317; n=127), and were boosted following a second dose (639 EU, 360–792; n=10). Neutralising antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 32 (91%) of 35 participants after a single dose when measured in MNA(80) and in 35 (100%) participants when measured in PRNT(50). After a booster dose, all participants had neutralising activity (nine of nine in MNA(80) at day 42 and ten of ten in Marburg VN on day 56). Neutralising antibody responses correlated strongly with antibody levels measured by ELISA (R(2)=0·67 by Marburg VN; p<0·001). INTERPRETATION: ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 showed an acceptable safety profile, and homologous boosting increased antibody responses. These results, together with the induction of both humoral and cellular immune responses, support large-scale evaluation of this candidate vaccine in an ongoing phase 3 programme. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Thames Valley and South Midland's NIHR Clinical Research Network, and the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner site Gießen-Marburg-Langen.

Lancet2020       LitCov and CORD-19
108A cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong  


N Engl J Med2003       CORD-19
109Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR  

BACKGROUND: The ongoing outbreak of the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) poses a challenge for public health laboratories as virus isolates are unavailable while there is growing evidence that the outbreak is more widespread than initially thought, and international spread through travellers does already occur. AIM: We aimed to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodology for use in public health laboratory settings without having virus material available. METHODS: Here we present a validated diagnostic workflow for 2019-nCoV, its design relying on close genetic relatedness of 2019-nCoV with SARS coronavirus, making use of synthetic nucleic acid technology. RESULTS: The workflow reliably detects 2019-nCoV, and further discriminates 2019-nCoV from SARS-CoV. Through coordination between academic and public laboratories, we confirmed assay exclusivity based on 297 original clinical specimens containing a full spectrum of human respiratory viruses. Control material is made available through European Virus Archive – Global (EVAg), a European Union infrastructure project. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity achieved through coordination of academic and public laboratories in national and European research networks.

Euro Surveill2020       LitCov and CORD-19
110Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada  


CMAJ2003       CORD-19
111A Reminder of Skin Cancer During the COVID-19 Pandemic  


Acta Dermatovenerol Croat2021       LitCov and CORD-19
112A prospective, randomized, controlled study assessing vagus nerve stimulation using the gammaCore-Sapphire device for patients with moderate to severe CoViD-19 Respiratory Symptoms (SAVIOR): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial"  

OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective: The primary objective is to reduce initiation of mechanical ventilator dependency in patients with moderate to severe CoViD- 19. This will be measured as the difference between the control group and active group for subjects admitted to the hospital for CoViD-19. Secondary Objectives: • To evaluate cytokine trends / Prevent cytokine storms • To evaluate supplemental oxygen requirements • To decrease mortality of CoViD-19 patients • Delay onset of ventilation TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a single centre, 2-arm, prospective, randomized (ratio 1:1), controlled trial with parallel groups design to compare the reduction of respiratory distress in a CoViD-19 population, using the intervention of the gammaCore®-Sapphire device plus standard of care (active) vs. standard of care alone (SoC) - the control group. The gammaCore® treatments will be used acutely and prophylactically. The active and control groups will be matched for disease and severity. PARTICIPANTS: i. Inclusion Criteria 1. Patient older than 18 years. 2. Been tested positive or suspected/presumed positive for CoViD-19. Has a cough, shortness of breath or respiratory O(2): 3. Agree to use the gammaCore®-Sapphire device as intended and to follow all of the requirements of the study including recording required study data; 4. Patient is able to provide signed and witnessed Informed Consent; ii. Exclusion Criteria 1. Pregnant women. 2. On home/therapy oxygen (i.e. for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) at baseline prior to development of CoViD-19. 3. Patient already enrolled in a clinical trial using immunotherapeutic regimen for CoViD-19. 4. History of aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumors, or significant head trauma. 5. Known or suspected severe atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, severe carotid artery disease (eg, bruits or history of transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident), congestive heart failure, known severe coronary artery disease, or recent myocardial infarction. 6. Uncontrolled high blood pressure (>140/90). 7. Current implantation of an electrical and/or neurostimulator device, including but not limited to a cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator, vagal neurostimulator, deep brain stimulator, spinal stimulator, bone growth stimulator, or cochlear implant. 8. Current implantation of metal cervical spine hardware or a metallic implant near the gammaCore stimulation site. 9. Belongs to a vulnerable population or has any condition such that his or her ability to provide informed consent, comply with the follow-up requirements, or provide self-assessments is compromised (e.g. homeless, developmentally disabled and prisoner). Participants will be recruited from Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia in Spain. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Prophylactic: Administer 2 doses (at 2 minutes each) of gammaCore®(-)Sapphire, one dose on each side of the neck scheduled three times a day (morning, mid-day and 1 hour before bed at night). Acute respiratory failure or shortness of breath: Administer 2 doses (at 2 minutes each) of gammaCore®-Sapphire, one on each side of the neck. If shortness of breath (SOB) persists 20 minutes after the start of the first treatment, a second dose will be administered. Max doses per day is 9 or 18 stimulations. Plus standard of care. Standard of care: oxygen therapy, antibiotics and ventilatory support if necessary depending on the clinic. MAIN OUTCOMES: Initiation of mechanical ventilation, from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. Safety; ascertainment of Adverse Effects/Serious Adverse Events, from randomisation to ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. Cytokine Storm measured by: Tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1β. Days 1,3,5,10,15 and/or at hospital discharge. Mortality and/or need for Critical Care admission, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first, O2 saturation levels , from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. Need for supplemental oxygen, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. RANDOMISATION: The patients are classified according to their oxygen levels as mild, moderate and severe and randomized according to their classification to the intervention and control in a ratio of 1:1. The randomization will be stratified for gender and age. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study, it is not possible to blind the participants and healthcare providers to the intervention. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total number of patients to be included in the study is 90, with 45 in each study group TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version is 8.0 from 07(th) April 2020. The recruitment began 20th April 2020 and is expected to be complete 31st July 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in clinicaltrials.gov on 29th April 2020 with the identification number: NCT04368156 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.

Trials2020       LitCov and CORD-19
113Glycyrrhizin, an active component of liquorice roots and replication of SARS-associated coronavirus  

The outbreak of SARS warrants the search for antiviral compounds to treat the disease. At present, no specific treatment has been identified for SARS-associated coronavirus infection. We assessed the antiviral potential of ribavirin, 6-azauridine, pyrazofurin, mycophenolic acid, and glycyrrhizin against two clinical isolates of coronavirus (FFM-1 and FFM-2) from patients with SARS admitted to the clinical centre of Frankfurt University, Germany. Of all the compounds, glycyrrhizin was the most active in inhibiting replication of the SARS-associated virus. Our findings suggest that glycyrrhizin should be assessed for treatment of SARS.

Lancet2003       CORD-19
114Koch's postulates fulfilled for SARS virus  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently emerged as a new human disease, resulting globally in 435 deaths from 6,234 probable cases (as of 3 May 2003). Here we provide proof from experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) that the newly discovered SARS-associated coronavirus (SCV) is the aetiological agent of this disease. Our understanding of the aetiology of SARS will expedite the development of diagnostic tests, antiviral therapies and vaccines, and may allow a more concise case definition for this emerging disease. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/423240a) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Nature2003       CORD-19
115Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia  

BACKGROUND: In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, significantly abnormal coagulation parameters in severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) cases were a concern. OBJECTIVES: To describe the coagulation feature of patients with NCP. METHODS: Conventional coagulation results and outcomes of 183 consecutive patients with confirmed NCP in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non‐survivors revealed significantly higher D‐dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non‐survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that abnormal coagulation results, especially markedly elevated D‐dimer and FDP are common in deaths with NCP.

J Thromb Haemost2020       LitCov and CORD-19
116Risk Factors for Hospitalization, Mechanical Ventilation, or Death Among 10 131 US Veterans With SARS-CoV-2 Infection  

IMPORTANCE: Identifying independent risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can support prognostication, resource utilization, and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To identify excess risk and risk factors associated with hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This longitudinal cohort study included 88 747 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction between Feburary 28 and May 14, 2020, and followed up through June 22, 2020, in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) national health care system, including 10 131 patients (11.4%) who tested positive. EXPOSURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, symptoms, and laboratory test results. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Risk of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death were estimated in time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The 10 131 veterans with SARS-CoV-2 were predominantly male (9221 [91.0%]), with diverse race/ethnicity (5022 [49.6%] White, 4215 [41.6%] Black, and 944 [9.3%] Hispanic) and a mean (SD) age of 63.6 (16.2) years. Compared with patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, those who tested positive had higher rates of 30-day hospitalization (30.4% vs 29.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.13), mechanical ventilation (6.7% vs 1.7%; aHR, 4.15; 95% CI, 3.74-4.61), and death (10.8% vs 2.4%; aHR, 4.44; 95% CI, 4.07-4.83). Among patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, characteristics significantly associated with mortality included older age (eg, ≥80 years vs <50 years: aHR, 60.80; 95% CI, 29.67-124.61), high regional COVID-19 disease burden (eg, ≥700 vs <130 deaths per 1 million residents: aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45), higher Charlson comorbidity index score (eg, ≥5 vs 0: aHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42), fever (aHR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.32-1.72), dyspnea (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.53-2.07), and abnormalities in the certain blood tests, which exhibited dose-response associations with mortality, including aspartate aminotransferase (>89 U/L vs ≤25 U/L: aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.35-2.57), creatinine (>3.80 mg/dL vs 0.98 mg/dL: aHR, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.62-5.48), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>12.70 vs ≤2.71: aHR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.12-3.91). With the exception of geographic region, the same covariates were independently associated with mechanical ventilation along with Black race (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.85), male sex (aHR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.30-3.32), diabetes (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67), and hypertension (aHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.64). Notable characteristics that were not significantly associated with mortality in adjusted analyses included obesity (body mass index ≥35 vs 18.5-24.9: aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.21), Black race (aHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.21), Hispanic ethnicity (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79-1.35), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88-1.19), hypertension (aHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.12), and smoking (eg, current vs never: aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.67-1.13). Most deaths in this cohort occurred in patients with age of 50 years or older (63.4%), male sex (12.3%), and Charlson Comorbidity Index score of at least 1 (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this national cohort of VA patients, most SARS-CoV-2 deaths were associated with older age, male sex, and comorbidity burden. Many factors previously reported to be associated with mortality in smaller studies were not confirmed, such as obesity, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and smoking.

JAMA Netw Open2020       LitCov and CORD-19
117Experiences, Attitudes and Needs of Users of a Pregnancy and Parenting App (Baby Buddy) During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mixed Methods Study  

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of expectant parents and parents of young babies, with disruptions in health care provision and loss of social support. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdown on this population through the lens of users of the UK National Health Service–approved pregnancy and parenting smartphone app, Baby Buddy. The study aims were threefold: to gain insights into the attitudes and experiences of expectant and recent parents (with babies under 24 weeks of age) during the COVID-19 pandemic; to investigate whether Baby Buddy is meeting users’ needs during this time; and to identify ways to revise the content of Baby Buddy to better support its users now and in future. METHODS: A mixed methods study design combining a web-based survey with semistructured telephone interviews among Baby Buddy users in the United Kingdom was applied. Data were collected from April 15 to mid-June 2020, corresponding to weeks 4-13 of the lockdown in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: A total of 436 expectant (n=244, 56.0%) and recent (n=192, 44.0%) parents responded to the web-based survey, of which 79.1% (n=345) were aged 25-39 years and 17.2% (n=75) spoke English as their second language. Of the 436 respondents, 88.5% (386/436) reported increased levels of anxiety around pregnancy, birth, and being a new parent, and 58.0% (253/436) were concerned about their emotional and mental health. Of the 244 pregnant respondents, 43.4% (n=106) were concerned about their physical health. Telephone interviews with 13 pregnant women and 19 recent parents revealed similarly increased levels of anxiety due to reduced health care provision and loss of support from friends and family. Although a minority of respondents identified some positive outcomes of lockdown, such as family bonding, many telephone interviewees reported feeling isolated, disregarded, and overwhelmed. Recent parents were particularly anxious about the impact of the lockdown on their baby’s development and socialization. Many interviewees were also concerned about their physical health as a consequence of both limited access to face-to-face medical appointments and their own poorer dietary and physical activity behaviors. Across both samples, 97.0% (423/436) of respondents reported that Baby Buddy was currently helping them, with many commenting that its role was even more important given the lack of face-to-face support from health care and parenting organizations. Greater speed in updating digital content to reflect changes due to the pandemic was suggested. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has created heightened anxiety and stress among expectant parents and those with a young baby, and for many, lockdown has had an adverse impact on their physical and mental well-being. With reductions in health care and social support, expectant and new parents are increasingly relying on web-based resources. As a free, evidence-based app, Baby Buddy is well positioned to meet this need. The app could support its users even more by actively directing them to the wealth of existing content relevant to their concerns and by adding content to give users the knowledge and confidence to meet new challenges.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth2020       LitCov and CORD-19
118Assessing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain: Large-Scale, Online, Self-Reported Population Survey  

BACKGROUND: Spain has been one of the countries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the first confirmed case was reported on January 31, 2020, there have been over 405,000 cases and 28,000 deaths in Spain. The economic and social impact is without precedent. Thus, it is important to quickly assess the situation and perception of the population. Large-scale online surveys have been shown to be an effective tool for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the situation and perception of the Spanish population in four key areas related to the COVID-19 pandemic: social contact behavior during confinement, personal economic impact, labor situation, and health status. METHODS: We obtained a large sample using an online survey with 24 questions related to COVID-19 in the week of March 28-April 2, 2020, during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in Spain. The self-selection online survey method of nonprobability sampling was used to recruit 156,614 participants via social media posts that targeted the general adult population (age >18 years). Given such a large sample, the 95% CI was ±0.843 for all reported proportions. RESULTS: Regarding social behavior during confinement, participants mainly left their homes to satisfy basic needs. We found several statistically significant differences in social behavior across genders and age groups. The population’s willingness to comply with the confinement measures is evident. From the survey answers, we identified a significant adverse economic impact of the pandemic on those working in small businesses and a negative correlation between economic damage and willingness to stay in confinement. The survey revealed that close contacts play an important role in the transmission of the disease, and 28% of the participants lacked the necessary resources to properly isolate themselves. We also identified a significant lack of testing, with only 1% of the population tested and 6% of respondents unable to be tested despite their doctor’s recommendation. We developed a generalized linear model to identify the variables that were correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Using this model, we estimated an average of 5% for SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in the Spanish population during the time of the study. A seroprevalence study carried out later by the Spanish Ministry of Health reported a similar level of disease prevalence (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale online population surveys, distributed via social media and online messaging platforms, can be an effective, cheap, and fast tool to assess the impact and prevalence of an infectious disease in the context of a pandemic, particularly when there is a scarcity of official data and limited testing capacity.

J Med Internet Res2020       LitCov and CORD-19
119Isolation from Man of "Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus-like" Viruses (Coronaviruses) similar to 229E Virus, with Some Epidemiological Observations  

J Infect Dis1969       CORD-19
120The impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Greek population: Suicidal ideation during the first and second lockdown  


Psychiatriki2021       LitCov and CORD-19
121Patient experiences of fertility clinic closure during the COVID-19 pandemic: appraisals, coping and emotions  

STUDY QUESTION: What are appraisals, coping strategies and emotional reactions of patients to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fertility clinic closures? SUMMARY ANSWER: Clinic closure was appraised as stressful due to uncertainty and threat to the attainability of the parenthood goal but patients were able to cope using strategies that fit the uncertainty of the situation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Psychological research on COVID-19 suggests that people are more anxious than historical norms and moderately to extremely upset about fertility treatment cancellation owing to COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The study was of cross-sectional design, comprising a mixed-methods, English language, anonymous, online survey posted from April 09 to April 21 to social media. Eligibility criteria were being affected by COVID-19 fertility clinic closure, 18 years of age or older and able to complete the survey in English. In total, 946 people clicked on the survey link, 76 did not consent, 420 started but did not complete survey, and 450 completed (48% completion, 446 women, four men). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Overall 74.7% (n = 336) of respondents were residents in the UK with an average age of 33.6 years (SD = 4.4) and average years trying to conceive, 3.5 years (SD = 2.22). The survey comprised quantitative questions about the intensity of cognitive appraisals and emotions about clinic closure, and ability to cope with clinic closure. Open-text questions covered their understanding of COVID-19 and its effect on reproductive health and fertility plans, concerns and perceived benefits of clinic closure, and knowledge about closure. Sociodemographic information was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used on quantitative data. Thematic qualitative analysis (inductive coding) was performed on the textual data from each question. Deductive coding grouped themes from each question into meta-themes related to cognitive stress and coping theory. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Most patients (81.6%, n = 367) had tests or treatments postponed, with these being self (41.3%, n = 186) or publicly (46.4%, n = 209) funded. Patients appraised fertility clinic closure as having potential for a more negative than positive impact on their lives, and to be very or extremely uncontrollable and stressful (p ≤ .001). Most reported a slight to moderate ability to cope with closure. Data saturation was achieved with all open-text questions, with 33 broad themes identified and four meta-themes linked to components of the cognitive stress and coping theory. First, participants understood clinic closure was precautionary due to unknown effects of COVID-19 but some felt clinic closure was unfair relative to advice about getting pregnant given to the public. Second, closure was appraised as a threat to attainability of the parenthood goal largely due to uncertainty of the situation (e.g., re-opening, effect of delay) and intensification of pre-existing hardships of fertility problems (e.g., long time waiting for treatment, history of failed treatment). Third, closure taxed personal coping resources but most were able to cope using thought-management (e.g., distraction, focusing on positives), getting mentally and physically fit for next treatments, strengthening their social network, and keeping up-to-date. Finally, participants reported more negative than positive emotions (p ≤ .001) and almost all participants reported stress, worry and frustration at the situation, while some expressed anger and resentment at the unfairness of the situation. Overall, 11.9% were not at all able to cope, with reports of intense feelings of hopelessness and deteriorating wellbeing and mental health. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The survey captures patient reactions at a specific point in time, during lockdown and before clinics announced re-opening. Participants were self-selected (e.g., UK residents, women, 48% starting but not completing the survey), which may affect generalisability. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Fertility stakeholders (e.g., clinics, patient support groups, regulators, professional societies) need to work together to address the great uncertainty from COVID-19. This goal can be met proactively by setting up transparent processes for COVID-19 eventualities and signposting to information and coping resources. Future psychological research priorities should be on identifying patients at risk of distress with standardised measures and developing digital technologies appropriate for the realities of fertility care under COVID-19. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): University funded research. Outside of the submitted work, Professor Boivin reports personal fees from Merck KGaA, Merck AB, Theramex, Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S; grants from Merck Serono Ltd; and that she is co-developer of the Fertility Quality of Life (FertiQoL) and MediEmo apps. Outside of the submitted work, Dr. Mathur reports personal or consultancy fees from Manchester Fertility, Gedeon Richter, Ferring and Merck. Outside of the submitted work, Dr. Gameiro reports consultancy fees from Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S, Access Fertility and SONA-Pharm LLC, and grants from Merck Serono Ltd. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A

Hum Reprod2020       LitCov and CORD-19
122Coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) structure: basis for design of anti-SARS drugs  


Science2003       CORD-19
123Investigating the Prevalence of Reactive Online Searching in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Infoveillance Study  

BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on global society, health care, governments, and mass media. Public dissemination of government policies, medical interventions, and misinformation has been remarkably rapid and largely unregulated during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased misinterpretations, miscommunication, and public panic. Being the first full-scale global pandemic of the digital age, COVID-19 has presented novel challenges pertinent to government advice, the spread of news and misinformation, and the trade-off between the accessibility of science and the premature public use of unproven medical interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the use of internet search terms relating to COVID-19 information and misinformation during the global pandemic, identify which were most used in six affected countries, investigate any temporal trends and the likely propagators of key search terms, and determine any correlation between the per capita cases and deaths with the adoption of these search terms in each of the six countries. METHODS: This study uses relative search volume data extracted from Google Trends for search terms linked to the COVID-19 pandemic alongside per capita case and mortality data extracted from the European Open Data Portal to identify the temporal dynamics of the spread of news and misinformation during the global pandemic in six affected countries (Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States). A correlation analysis was carried out to ascertain any correlation between the temporal trends of search term use and the rise of per capita mortality and disease cases. RESULTS: Of the selected search terms, most were searched immediately following promotion by governments, public figures, or viral circulation of information, but also in relation to the publication of scientific resources, which were sometimes misinterpreted before further dissemination. Strong correlations were identified between the volume of these COVID-19–related search terms (overall mean Spearman rho 0.753, SD 0.158), and per capita mortality (mean per capita deaths Spearman rho 0.690, SD 0.168) and cases (mean per capita cases Spearman rho 0.800, SD 0.112). CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the increased rate and volume of the public consumption of novel information during a global health care crisis. The positive correlation between mortality and online searching, particularly in countries with lower COVID-19 testing rates, may demonstrate the imperative to safeguard official communications and dispel misinformation in these countries. Online news, government briefings, and social media provide a powerful tool for the dissemination of important information to the public during pandemics, but their misuse and the presentation of misrepresented medical information should be monitored, minimized, and addressed to safeguard public safety. Ultimately, governments, public health authorities, and scientists have a moral imperative to safeguard the truth and maintain an accessible discourse with the public to limit fear.

J Med Internet Res2020       LitCov and CORD-19
124Imaging and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2  

BACKGROUND: The pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) recently break out in Wuhan, China, and was named as COVID-19. With the spread of the disease, similar cases have also been confirmed in other regions of China. We aimed to report the imaging and clinical characteristics of these patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: All patients with laboratory-identified SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were collected between January 23, 2020, and February 4, 2020, in a designated hospital (Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital). This analysis included 90 patients (39 men and 51 women; median age, 50 years (age range, 18–86 years). All the included SARS-CoV-2-infected patients underwent non-contrast enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patients, as well as the distribution characteristics, pattern, morphology, and accompanying manifestations of lung lesions. In addition, after 1–6 days (mean 3.5 days), follow-up chest CT images were evaluated to assess radiological evolution. FINDINGS: The majority of infected patients had a history of exposure in Wuhan or to infected patients and mostly presented with fever and cough. More than half of the patients presented bilateral, multifocal lung lesions, with peripheral distribution, and 53 (59%) patients had more than two lobes involved. Of all included patients, COVID-19 pneumonia presented with ground glass opacities in 65 (72%), consolidation in 12 (13%), crazy paving pattern in 11 (12%), interlobular thickening in 33 (37%), adjacent pleura thickening in 50 (56%), and linear opacities combined in 55 (61%). Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and lymphadenopathy were uncommon findings. In addition, baseline chest CT did not show any abnormalities in 21 patients (23%), but 3 patients presented bilateral ground glass opacities on the second CT after 3–4 days. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection can be confirmed based on the patient’s history, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, and laboratory tests. Chest CT examination plays an important role in the initial diagnosis of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. Multiple patchy ground glass opacities in bilateral multiple lobular with periphery distribution are typical chest CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging2020       LitCov and CORD-19
125Effects of Internet Hospital Consultations on Psychological Burdens and Disease Knowledge During the Early Outbreak of COVID-19 in China: Cross-Sectional Survey Study  

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat to human health. Internet hospitals have emerged as a critical technology to bring epidemic-related web-based services and medical support to the public. However, only a few very recent scientific literature reports have explored the effects of internet hospitals on psychological burden and disease knowledge in major public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of internet hospitals in relieving psychological burden and increasing disease knowledge during the early outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This survey was conducted from January 26 to February 1, 2020, during the early outbreak of COVID-19 in China. The platform used for the consultation was the WeChat public account of our hospital. To participate in the study, the patient was required to answer a list of questions to exclude the possibility of COVID-19 infection and confirm their willingness to participate voluntarily. Next, the participant was directed to complete the self-report questionnaire. After the internet consultation, the participant was directed to complete the self-report questionnaire again. The questionnaire included sections on general information, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and the participant’s worries, disease knowledge, and need for hospital treatment. RESULTS: The total number of internet consultations was 4120. The consultation topics mainly included respiratory symptoms such as cough, expectoration, and fever (2489/4120, 60.4%) and disease knowledge, anxiety, and fear (1023/4120, 24.8%). A total of 1530 people filled out the questionnaires before and after the internet consultation. Of these people, 1398/1530 (91.4%) experienced psychological stress before the internet consultation, which significantly decreased after consultation (260/1530, 17.0%) (χ(2)(1)=1704.8, P<.001). There was no significant difference in the number of people who expressed concern about the COVID-19 pandemic before and after the internet consultation (χ(2)(1)=0.7, P=.43). However, the degree of concern after the internet consultation was significantly alleviated (t(2699)=90.638, P<.001). The main worries before and after consultation were the dangers posed by the disease and the risk of infection of family members. The scores of the self-assessment risk after the internet consultation were significantly lower than those before consultation (t(3058)=95.694, P<.001). After the consultation, the participants’ knowledge of the symptoms, transmission routes, and preventive measures of COVID-19 was significantly higher than before the consultation (t(3058)=–106.105, –80.456, and –152.605, respectively; all P<.001). The hospital treatment need score after the internet consultation decreased from 3.3 (SD 1.2) to 1.6 (SD 0.8), and the difference was statistically significant (t(3058)=45.765, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the early outbreak of COVID-19, internet hospitals could help relieve psychological burdens and increase disease awareness through timely and rapid spread of knowledge regarding COVID-19 prevention and control. Internet hospitals should be an important aspect of a new medical model in public health emergency systems.

J Med Internet Res2020       LitCov and CORD-19
126The 2020 Pandemic: Current SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development  

Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome infecting animals and humans. Coronaviruses have been described more than 70 years ago and contain many species. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are lethal species caused by human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Currently, a novel strain of HCoVs, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital city of the Hubei province of China, and has since spread worldwide causing an outbreak in more than 200 countries. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11th, 2020 and a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) in late January 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoV-2 infects the respiratory tract causing flu-like symptoms and, in some, may cause severe illness like pneumonia and multi-organ failure leading to death. Today, Covid-19 cases almost reaching 9 million, with more than 450 thousand deaths. There is an urgent demand for developing a vaccine since no effective therapies or vaccines have been approved to this day to prevent or minimize the spread of the infection. In this review, we summarized the furthest vaccines in the clinical pipeline.

Front Immunol2020       LitCov and CORD-19
127The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses  


Rev Sci Tech2004       CORD-19
128Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science  

Summary The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on all aspects of society, including mental health and physical health. We explore the psychological, social, and neuroscientific effects of COVID-19 and set out the immediate priorities and longer-term strategies for mental health science research. These priorities were informed by surveys of the public and an expert panel convened by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ: Transforming Mental Health, in the first weeks of the pandemic in the UK in March, 2020. We urge UK research funding agencies to work with researchers, people with lived experience, and others to establish a high level coordination group to ensure that these research priorities are addressed, and to allow new ones to be identified over time. The need to maintain high-quality research standards is imperative. International collaboration and a global perspective will be beneficial. An immediate priority is collecting high-quality data on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic across the whole population and vulnerable groups, and on brain function, cognition, and mental health of patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for research to address how mental health consequences for vulnerable groups can be mitigated under pandemic conditions, and on the impact of repeated media consumption and health messaging around COVID-19. Discovery, evaluation, and refinement of mechanistically driven interventions to address the psychological, social, and neuroscientific aspects of the pandemic are required. Rising to this challenge will require integration across disciplines and sectors, and should be done together with people with lived experience. New funding will be required to meet these priorities, and it can be efficiently leveraged by the UK's world-leading infrastructure. This Position Paper provides a strategy that may be both adapted for, and integrated with, research efforts in other countries.

Lancet Psychiatry2020       LitCov and CORD-19
129Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China  

Lancet Oncol2020       LitCov and CORD-19
130A Trial of Lopinavir-Ritonavir in Adults Hospitalized with Severe Covid-19  

BACKGROUND: No therapeutics have yet been proven effective for the treatment of severe illness caused by SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label trial involving hospitalized adult patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, which causes the respiratory illness Covid-19, and an oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) of 94% or less while they were breathing ambient air or a ratio of the partial pressure of oxygen (Pao(2)) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio(2)) of less than 300 mm Hg. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either lopinavir–ritonavir (400 mg and 100 mg, respectively) twice a day for 14 days, in addition to standard care, or standard care alone. The primary end point was the time to clinical improvement, defined as the time from randomization to either an improvement of two points on a seven-category ordinal scale or discharge from the hospital, whichever came first. RESULTS: A total of 199 patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent randomization; 99 were assigned to the lopinavir–ritonavir group, and 100 to the standard-care group. Treatment with lopinavir–ritonavir was not associated with a difference from standard care in the time to clinical improvement (hazard ratio for clinical improvement, 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.72). Mortality at 28 days was similar in the lopinavir–ritonavir group and the standard-care group (19.2% vs. 25.0%; difference, −5.8 percentage points; 95% CI, −17.3 to 5.7). The percentages of patients with detectable viral RNA at various time points were similar. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, lopinavir–ritonavir led to a median time to clinical improvement that was shorter by 1 day than that observed with standard care (hazard ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.91). Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common in the lopinavir–ritonavir group, but serious adverse events were more common in the standard-care group. Lopinavir–ritonavir treatment was stopped early in 13 patients (13.8%) because of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized adult patients with severe Covid-19, no benefit was observed with lopinavir–ritonavir treatment beyond standard care. Future trials in patients with severe illness may help to confirm or exclude the possibility of a treatment benefit. (Funded by Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development and others; Chinese Clinical Trial Register number, ChiCTR2000029308.)

N Engl J Med2020       LitCov and CORD-19
131Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial  

BACKGROUND: Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. PATIENTS AND METHODS: French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16(th), to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. Untreated patients from another center and cases refusing the protocol were included as negative controls. Presence and absence of virus at Day6-post inclusion was considered the end point. RESULTS: Six patients were asymptomatic, 22 had upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and eight had lower respiratory tract infection symptoms. Twenty cases were treated in this study and showed a significant reduction of the viral carriage at D6-post inclusion compared to controls, and much lower average carrying duration than reported of untreated patients in the literature. Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. CONCLUSION: Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.

Int J Antimicrob Agents2020       LitCov and CORD-19
132Could masks curtail the post-lockdown resurgence of COVID-19 in the US?  

The community lockdown measures implemented in the United States from late March to late May of 2020 resulted in a significant reduction in the community transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the country. However, a number of US states are currently experiencing an alarming post-lockdown resurgence of the pandemic, triggering fears for a devastating second pandemic wave. We designed a mathematical model for addressing the key question of whether or not the universal use of face masks can halt such resurgence (and possibly avert a second wave, without having to undergo another cycle of major community lockdown) in the states of Arizona, Florida, New York and the entire US. Model calibration, using cumulative mortality data for the four jurisdictions during their respective pre-lockdown and lockdown periods, show that pre-symptomatic and asymptomatically-infectious individuals are, by far, the main drivers of the COVID-19 pandemic in each of the jurisdictions. The implication of this result is that detecting and isolating individuals with clinical symptoms of the pandemic alone (even if all of them are found) may not be sufficient to effectively curtail the pandemic. To achieve such control, it is crucially-necessary that pre-symptomatic and asymptomatically-infectious individuals are rapidly detected and isolated (and their contacts rapidly traced and tested). Our study highlights the importance of early implementation of the community lockdown measures. In particular, a sizable reduction in the burden of the pandemic would have been recorded in each of the four jurisdictions if the community lockdown measures were implemented a week or two earlier. These reductions are significantly increased if the early implementation of the lockdown measures was complemented with a public face mask use strategy. With all related control measures maintained at their baseline levels, this study shows that the pandemic would have been almost completely suppressed from significantly taking off if the lockdown measures were implemented two weeks earlier, and if a sizable percentage of the residents of the four jurisdictions wore face masks during the respective lockdown periods (mention what happens if lockdown measures were extended by two weeks). We simulated the pandemic in the four jurisdictions under three levels of lifting of community lockdown, namely mild, moderate and high. For the scenario where the control measures adopted are at the baseline levels during the lockdown period, our simulations show that the states of Arizona and Florida will record devastating second waves of the pandemic by the end of 2020, while the state of New York and the entire US will record milder second waves. If the community lockdown measures were lifted at the mild lifting level (i.e., only limited community contacts and business activities are allowed, in comparison to the levels of these activities allowed during the corresponding lockdown period), only the state of Florida will experience a second wave. It is further shown that the severity of the projected second waves depend on the level of lifting of the community lockdown. For instance, the projected second wave for Arizona and Florida will be more severe than their first waves. It is further shown that, for high level of lifting of community lockdown measures, the increased use of face masks after the lockdown period greatly reduces the burden of the pandemic in each jurisdiction. In particular, for this high lockdown lifting scenario, none of the four jurisdictions will experience a second wave if half of their residents wear face masks consistently after their respective lockdown period. A diagnostic testing strategy that increases the maximum detection rate of asymptomatic infected individuals (followed by contact tracing and self-isolation of the detected cases) greatly reduces the burden of the pandemic in all four jurisdictions, particularly if also combined with a universal face mask use strategy. Finally, it is shown that the universal use of face masks in public, with at least moderate level of compliance, could halt the post-lockdown resurgence of COVID-19, in addition to averting the potential for (and severity of) a second wave of the pandemic in each of the four jurisdictions.

Math Biosci2020       LitCov and CORD-19
133COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence  

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic general medical complications have received the most attention, whereas only few studies address the potential direct effect on mental health of SARS-CoV-2 and the neurotropic potential. Furthermore, the indirect effects of the pandemic on general mental health are of increasing concern, particularly since the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic (2002-2003) was associated with psychiatric complications. METHODS: We systematically searched the database Pubmed including studies measuring psychiatric symptoms or morbidities associated with COVID-19 among infected patients and among none infected groups the latter divided in psychiatric patients, health care workers and non-health care workers. RESULTS: A total of 43 studies were included. Out of these, only two studies evaluated patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, whereas 41 evaluated the indirect effect of the pandemic (2 on patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders, 20 on medical health care workers, and 19 on the general public). 18 of the studies were case-control studies/compared to norm, while 25 of the studies had no control groups. The two studies investigating COVID-19 patients found a high level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) (96.2%) and significantly higher level of depressive symptoms (p=0.016). Patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders reported worsening of psychiatric symptoms. Studies investigating health care workers found increased depression/depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychological distress and poor sleep quality. Studies of the general public revealed lower psychological well-being and higher scores of anxiety and depression compared to before COVID-19, while no difference when comparing these symptoms in the initial phase of the outbreak to four weeks later. A variety of factors were associated with higher risk of psychiatric symptoms and/or low psychological well-being including female gender, poor-self-related health and relatives with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Research evaluating the direct neuropsychiatric consequences and the indirect effects on mental health is highly needed to improve treatment, mental health care planning and for preventive measures during potential subsequent pandemics.

Brain Behav Immun2020       LitCov and CORD-19
134Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults  

Clin Infect Dis2007       CORD-19
135The effect of framing and communicating COVID-19 vaccine side-effect risks on vaccine intentions for adults in the UK and the USA: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

OBJECTIVES: 1. Qualitative risk labels: Determine whether attaching a qualitative risk label (e.g. adding very low risk next to the actual numerical risk) impacts individuals' willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. 2. Comparison groups: Determine how framing side-effect risks in comparison to other causes of mortality (COVID-19 mortality and motor vehicle mortality) impacts individuals’ willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. 3. How the comparison risks are presented: Determine whether comparisons to other causes of mortality are presented on an absolute or relative scale impacts individuals’ willingness to take a vaccine and their perceptions of its safety. Secondarily, we will also randomize a subset of individuals to receive the status-quo framing, where the vaccine side-effect risks are presented like how they were presented in the media. We will then compare vaccine intentions and perceptions of vaccine safety between the status-quo and the pooled intervention group samples to provide some insight into how harmful the status-quo framing was. Ultimately, we believe that our results will provide the some of the first experimental evidence on how the communication of COVID-19 vaccine risks may impact the public's willingness to be vaccinated and can inform future efforts to increase vaccination rates. TRIAL DESIGN: Our study is an online-based randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of different vaccine side-effect framings on COVID-19 vaccine intentions and perceived safety for a hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. Using a factorial design, we will experimentally assess the impact of 3 risk framing strategies, varying whether the risk is presented: (1) with a qualitative label, (2) whether the risk is presented with a comparison risk, and (3) for comparison cases, whether the comparison is in absolute or relative terms. We will also randomize a portion of respondents to a status quo framing where the side effect risk mimics the media's communication in early April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: This will be an online study setting. We will use Prolific to recruit participants and host our study on the Gorilla platform. To be eligible, participants must be 18 years old or over (male, female, or other), have current residence in the US or UK, and be able to speak English. Participants will be excluded from the study if they do not meet our inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Our study content will consist of five pages presented to individuals online. Page 1 will explain the purpose of the study and contain the consent information. Page 2 will contain basic sociodemographic questions, including participants' age, sex, and schooling level. Page 3 will set up the experiment by telling individuals that we will describe a hypothetical new COVID-19 vaccine and that we would like to know how likely they would be to take the vaccine and how safe they think the vaccine is. On this page, we will also encourage individuals to respond truthfully and remind them that their answers are confidential and cannot be linked back to any personal identifying information. Page 4 will be the main experimental slide, where we will present individuals with information on the vaccine, varying how the vaccination risk is communicated based on which experimental framing arm they are randomized to. We will factorially randomize across the following factors in the following order (separately by country). First, we will determine whether individuals are randomized to the status quo framing, or the intervention framings (1500 respondents to the status quo, and 4500 to the intervention). Among those randomized to the intervention framing, we will randomize (equal allocation) whether the side effect is presented without a comparison, with a comparison to COVID-19 mortality, or with a comparison to motor vehicle mortality. We will then factorially randomize (equal allocation) whether the risk is presented with a qualitative risk label or not (e.g. very low risk). To ensure that the factors are independent of one another, we will do this by randomizing individuals to the risk labels within strata of the comparison group factor. Lastly, among those randomized to the comparison group, we will factorially randomize whether the risk is presented as an absolute or relative comparison. As previously, we will ensure independence by doing this randomization within strata of comparison group*risk labelling. This entire design is visualized in the full protocol. The experimental text for each arm is: Arm 1: With regards to side effects, so far 8 individuals have developed potentially life-threatening blood clots. This is among the approximately 7 million adults that have received the vaccine so far. Arm 2: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. Arm 3: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 170 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated Americans died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 108 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated individuals in the UK died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/170th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated Americans based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/108th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated individuals in the UK based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 170 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated Americans died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 108 out of every 100,000 unvaccinated individuals in the UK died of COVID-19 based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/170th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated Americans based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/108th of the risk of COVID-19 mortality among unvaccinated individuals in the UK based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 12 out of every 100,000 Americans died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, 2.6 out of every 100,000 individuals in the UK died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is 1/12th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots. As a reference, this is almost 1/4th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 12 out of every 100,000 Americans died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, 2.6 out of every 100,000 individuals in the UK died in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for USA participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is 1/12th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. Text for UK participants: With regards to side effects, 1 out of 100,000 vaccinated individuals may develop serious blood clots (very low risk). As a reference, this is nearly 1/4th of the risk of dying in a motor vehicle accident based on data from the past year. The risk information will be presented on a single page along with the two main outcome questions. Lastly, for individuals that reported that they are unlikely or unsure about whether they would take the vaccine, the final page will ask them their reason (question based on a recently published study of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy). MAIN OUTCOMES: Our primary outcome is individuals' willingness to take the hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine. We will measure this outcome by asking, How likely would you be to take this vaccine? allowing individuals to choose from a four-point Likert response of Unlikely, Unsure leaning towards unlikely, Unsure leaning towards likely, Very likely. This outcome variable, including the categories and phrasing, is based on a recently published study on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy conducted by researchers with the Vaccine Hesitance Project at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Our secondary outcome is individuals' perceived safety of the vaccine. We will assess this outcome by asking individuals, How safe do you feel this vaccine is? allowing them to choose answers ranging from 1-10 where 1 is extremely unsafe, and 10 is extremely safe. Both outcomes will be measured at the time of the questionnaire. Participants can take up to 45 min to complete the questions but will not be able to go back and change their responses after submitting their questionnaire. RANDOMIZATION: Using a web-based randomization algorithm, Gorilla will randomly allocate participants to each of the experimental arms. Gorilla allows for two randomization options - independent randomization of each individual based on a probability draw and balanced randomization, which randomizes without replacement such that among groups of respondents a fixed proportion will end up in each experimental arm. We will use the balanced randomization option to ensure that our experimental arms are balanced. Participants will be randomized based on the allocations described above. BLINDING: Because Prolific handles the interaction between the study investigators and participants, the participants will be completely anonymous to the study investigators. The outcome measures will be self-reported and submitted anonymously. All persons in the study team will be blinded to the group allocation. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED: We will randomize 6000 participants per country for a total sample of 12000 individuals. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version number is 1.0 and the date is July 14, 2021. Recruitment is expected to begin on 26 July 2021 and end by August 10, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study and its outcomes were registered at the German Clinical Trials Register (www.drks.de) on July 12th, 2021: #DRKS00025551. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Full_Protocol_20Jul2021) In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13063-021-05484-2.

Trials2021       LitCov and CORD-19
136Technical guidelines for seasonal influenza vaccination in China (2020-2021)  


Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi2020       LitCov and CORD-19
137Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis and Angiogenesis in Covid-19  


N Engl J Med2020       LitCov and CORD-19
138World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus  

An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Considered a relative of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), COVID-19 is caused by a betacoronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 that affects the lower respiratory tract and manifests as pneumonia in humans. Despite rigorous global containment and quarantine efforts, the incidence of COVID-19 continues to rise, with 90,870 laboratory-confirmed cases and over 3,000 deaths worldwide. In response to this global outbreak, we summarise the current state of knowledge surrounding COVID-19.

Int J Surg2020       LitCov and CORD-19
139A hundred days into the coronavirus disease pandemic  

Euro Surveill2020       LitCov and CORD-19
140Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA  


Nucleic Acids Res2000       CORD-19
141Newly discovered coronavirus as the primary cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome  

BACKGROUND: The worldwide outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is associated with a newly discovered coronavirus, SARS-associated coronavirus (SARSCoV). We did clinical and experimental studies to assess the role of this virus in the cause of SARS. METHODS: We tested clinical and postmortem samples from 436 SARS patients in six countries for infection with SARSCoV, human metapneumovirus, and other respiratory pathogens. We infected four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) with SARS-CoV in an attempt to replicate SARS and did necropsies on day 6 after infection. FINDINGS: SARS-CoV infection was diagnosed in 329 (75%) of 436 patients fitting the case definition of SARS; human metapneumovirus was diagnosed in 41 (12%) of 335, and other respiratory pathogens were diagnosed only sporadically. SARS-CoV was, therefore, the most likely causal agent of SARS. The four SARS-CoV-infected macaques excreted SARS-CoV from nose, mouth, and pharynx from 2 days after infection. Three of four macaques developed diffuse alveolar damage, similar to that in SARS patients, and characterised by epithelial necrosis, serosanguineous exudate, formation of hyaline membranes, type 2 pneumocyte hyperplasia, and the presence of syncytia. SARS-CoV was detected in pneumonic areas by virus isolation and RT-PCR, and was localised to alveolar epithelial cells and syncytia by immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. INTERPRETATION: Replication in SARS-CoV-infected macaques of pneumonia similar to that in human beings with SARS, combined with the high prevalence of SARS-CoV infection in SARS patients, fulfill the criteria required to prove that SARS-CoV is the primary cause of SARS. Published online July 22, 2003 http://image.thelancet.com/extras/03art6318web.pdf

Lancet2003       CORD-19
142Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019  


Nature2020       LitCov and CORD-19
143Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses  


Cochrane Database Syst Rev2020       LitCov and CORD-19
144Distance learning in clinical medical education amid COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan: current situation, challenges and perspectives  

BACKGROUND: As COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic disease by the WHO on March 11th, 2020, the global incidence of COVID-19 disease increased dramatically. In response to the COVID-19 situation, Jordan announced the emergency state on the 19th of March, followed by the curfew on 21 March. All educational institutions have been closed as well as educational activities including clinical medical education have been suspended on the 15th of March. As a result, Distance E-learning emerged as a new method of teaching to maintain the continuity of medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic related closure of educational institutions. Distance E-Learning is defined as using computer technology to deliver training, including technology-supported learning either online, offline, or both. Before this period, distance learning was not considered in Jordanian universities as a modality for education. This study aims to explore the situation of distance E-learning among medical students during their clinical years and to identify possible challenges, limitations, satisfaction as well as perspectives for this approach to learning. METHODS: This cross-sectional study is based on a questionnaire that was designed and delivered to medical students in their clinical years. For this study, the estimated sample size (n = 588) is derived from the online Raosoft sample size calculator. RESULTS: A total of 652 students have completed the questionnaire, among them, 538 students (82.5%) have participated in distance learning in their medical schools amid COVID-19 pandemic. The overall satisfaction rate in medical distance learning was 26.8%, and it was significantly higher in students with previous experience in distance learning in their medical schools as well as when instructors were actively participating in learning sessions, using multimedia and devoting adequate time for their sessions. The delivery of educational material using synchronous live streaming sessions represented the major modality of teaching and Internet streaming quality and coverage was the main challenge that was reported by 69.1% of students. CONCLUSION: With advances in technologies and social media, distance learning is a new and rapidly growing approach for undergraduate, postgraduate, and health care providers. It may represent an optimal solution to maintain learning processes in exceptional and emergency situations such as COVID-19 pandemic. Technical and infrastructural resources reported as a major challenge for implementing distance learning, so understanding technological, financial, institutional, educators, and student barriers are essential for the successful implementation of distance learning in medical education.

BMC Med Educ2020       LitCov and CORD-19
145Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19  

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 may predispose to both venous and arterial thromboembolism due to excessive inflammation, hypoxia, immobilisation and diffuse intravascular coagulation. Reports on the incidence of thrombotic complications are however not available. METHODS: We evaluated the incidence of the composite outcome of symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), deep-vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction or systemic arterial embolism in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU of 2 Dutch university hospitals and 1 Dutch teaching hospital. RESULTS: We studied 184 ICU patients with proven COVID-19 pneumonia of whom 23 died (13%), 22 were discharged alive (12%) and 139 (76%) were still on the ICU on April 5th 2020. All patients received at least standard doses thromboprophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of the composite outcome was 31% (95%CI 20-41), of which CTPA and/or ultrasonography confirmed VTE in 27% (95%CI 17-37%) and arterial thrombotic events in 3.7% (95%CI 0-8.2%). PE was the most frequent thrombotic complication (n = 25, 81%). Age (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.05/per year, 95%CI 1.004-1.01) and coagulopathy, defined as spontaneous prolongation of the prothrombin time > 3 s or activated partial thromboplastin time > 5 s (aHR 4.1, 95%CI 1.9-9.1), were independent predictors of thrombotic complications. CONCLUSION: The 31% incidence of thrombotic complications in ICU patients with COVID-19 infections is remarkably high. Our findings reinforce the recommendation to strictly apply pharmacological thrombosis prophylaxis in all COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU, and are strongly suggestive of increasing the prophylaxis towards high-prophylactic doses, even in the absence of randomized evidence.

Thromb Res2020       LitCov and CORD-19
146Pathogenesis-directed therapy of 2019 novel coronavirus disease  


J Med Virol2021       LitCov and CORD-19
147The outbreak of the novel SARS-CoV-2: A review of the current global status  

There is currently an ongoing worldwide pandemic of a novel virus belonging to the family of Coronaviruses (CoVs) which are large, enveloped, plus-stranded RNA viruses. Coronaviruses belong to the order of Nidovirales, family of Coronavirinae and are divided into four genera: alphacoronavirus, betacoronavirus, gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus. CoVs cause diseases in a wide variety of birds and mammals and have been found in humans since 1960. To date, seven human CoVs were identified including the alpha-CoVs HCoVs-NL63 and HCoVs-229E and the beta-CoVs HCoVs-OC43, HCoVs-HKU1, the severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV (SARS-CoV), the Middle East respiratory syndrome-CoV (MERS-CoV) and the novel virus that first appeared in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and rapidly spread to 213 countries as of the writing this paper. It was officially named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by the international committee on taxonomy of viruses (ICTV) and the disease’s name is COVID-19 for coronavirus disease 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is very contagious and is capable of spreading from human to human. Infection routes include droplet and contact, and aerosol transmission is currently under investigation. It is associated with a respiratory illness that may cause severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). SARS-CoV-2 became an emergency of international concern. As of July 12, 2020, the virus has been responsible for 12,698,995 confirmed cases and 564,924 deaths worldwide and the number is still increasing. Up until now, no specific treatment has yet been proven effective against SARS-CoV-2. Since the beginning of this outbreak, several interesting papers on SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 have been published to report on the phylogenetic evolution, epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission as well as clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and possible treatments agents. This paper is a systematic review of the available literature on SARS-CoV-2. It was performed in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and aims to help readers access the latest knowledge surrounding this new infectious disease and to provide a reference for future studies.

J Infect Public Health2020       LitCov and CORD-19
148Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing for COVID-19 in China: A Report of 1014 Cases  

BACKGROUND: Chest CT is used for diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), as an important complement to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic value and consistency of chest CT as compared with comparison to RT-PCR assay in COVID-19. METHODS: From January 6 to February 6, 2020, 1014 patients in Wuhan, China who underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR tests were included. With RT-PCR as reference standard, the performance of chest CT in diagnosing COVID-19 was assessed. Besides, for patients with multiple RT-PCR assays, the dynamic conversion of RT-PCR results (negative to positive, positive to negative, respectively) was analyzed as compared with serial chest CT scans for those with time-interval of 4 days or more. RESULTS: Of 1014 patients, 59% (601/1014) had positive RT-PCR results, and 88% (888/1014) had positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity of chest CT in suggesting COVID-19 was 97% (95%CI, 95-98%, 580/601 patients) based on positive RT-PCR results. In patients with negative RT-PCR results, 75% (308/413) had positive chest CT findings; of 308, 48% were considered as highly likely cases, with 33% as probable cases. By analysis of serial RT-PCR assays and CT scans, the mean interval time between the initial negative to positive RT-PCR results was 5.1 ± 1.5 days; the initial positive to subsequent negative RT-PCR result was 6.9 ± 2.3 days). 60% to 93% of cases had initial positive CT consistent with COVID-19 prior (or parallel) to the initial positive RT-PCR results. 42% (24/57) cases showed improvement in follow-up chest CT scans before the RT-PCR results turning negative. CONCLUSION: Chest CT has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of COVID-19. Chest CT may be considered as a primary tool for the current COVID-19 detection in epidemic areas. A translation of this abstract in Farsi is available in the supplement. - ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است.

Radiology2020       LitCov and CORD-19
149Human and novel coronavirus infections in children: a review  


Paediatr Int Child Health2021       LitCov and CORD-19
150The species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus: classifying 2019-nCoV and naming it SARS-CoV-2  

The present outbreak of a coronavirus-associated acute respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is the third documented spillover of an animal coronavirus to humans in only two decades that has resulted in a major epidemic. The Coronaviridae Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the classification of viruses and taxon nomenclature of the family Coronaviridae, has assessed the placement of the human pathogen, tentatively named 2019-nCoV, within the Coronaviridae. Based on phylogeny, taxonomy and established practice, the CSG recognizes this virus as forming a sister clade to the prototype human and bat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) of the species Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus, and designates it as SARS-CoV-2. In order to facilitate communication, the CSG proposes to use the following naming convention for individual isolates: SARS-CoV-2/host/location/isolate/date. While the full spectrum of clinical manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans remains to be determined, the independent zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 highlights the need for studying viruses at the species level to complement research focused on individual pathogenic viruses of immediate significance. This will improve our understanding of virus–host interactions in an ever-changing environment and enhance our preparedness for future outbreaks.

Nat Microbiol2020       LitCov and CORD-19

(1) COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). 2020. Version 2022-06-02. Retrieved from https://ai2-semanticscholar-cord-19.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/historical_releases.html. Accessed 2022-06-05. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3715506
(2) Chen Q, Allot A, & Lu Z. (2020) Keep up with the latest coronavirus research, Nature 579:193 and Chen Q, Allot A, Lu Z. LitCovid: an open database of COVID-19 literature. Nucleic Acids Research. 2020. (version 2023-01-10)
(3) Currently tweets of June 23rd to June 29th 2022 have been considered.

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