|101||Spring in London with Covid-19: a personal view |
|Med Leg J||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|102||A novel coronavirus outbreak of global health concern||Lancet||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|103||SARS-CoV-2(SARS-CoV-2) infection during late pregnancy: a report of 18 patients from Wuhan, China |
BACKGROUND: Compared with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Corona Virus Disease 2019(COVID-19) spread more rapidly and widely. The population was generally susceptible. However, reports on pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 were very limited. By sharing the clinical characteristics, treatments and outcomes of 18 patients with COVID-19 during late pregnancy, we hope to provide some references for obstetric treatment and management. METHODS: A total of 18 patients with COVID-19 treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University were collected. The epidemiological characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, chest CT and pregnancy outcomes were performed for analysis. RESULTS: 1. 18 cases of late pregnancy infected with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were delivered at 35 (+ 5) weeks to 41 weeks. According to the clinical classification of COVID-19, 1 case was mild type, 16 cases were ordinary type, and 1 case was severe type. 2. According to imaging examinations: 15 (83%) cases showed unilateral or bilateral pneumonia, 2 (11%) cases had pulmonary infection with pleural effusion, and 1 (6%) case had no abnormal imaging changes. 8 (44%) cases were positive and 10 (56%) cases were negative for nasopharyngeal-swab tests of SARS-CoV-2. 3. Among the 18 newborns, there were 3 (17%) premature infants, 1 (6%) case of mild asphyxia, 5 (28%) cases of bacterial pneumonia, 1 (6%) case of gastrointestinal bleeding, 1 (6%) case of necrotizing enteritis, 2 (11%) cases of hyperbilirubinemia and 1 (6%) case of diarrhea. All the newborns were negative for the first throat swab test of SARS-CoV-2 after birth. 4. Follow-up to Mar 7, 2020, no maternal and neonatal deaths occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients in late term pregnancy with COVID-19 were of ordinary type, and they were less likely to develop into critical pneumonia after early isolation and antiviral treatment. Vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 was not detected, but the proportion of neonatal bacterial pneumonia was higher than other neonatal diseases in newborns.
|BMC Pregnancy Childbirth||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|104||A cluster of cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong |
|N Engl J Med||2003||CORD-19|
|105||Endothelial cell infection and endotheliitis in COVID-19||Lancet||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|106||The Technological Impact of COVID-19 on the Future of Education and Healthcare Delivery |
|Pain Physician||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|107||First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States |
An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient’s initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection.
|N Engl J Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|108||Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions |
|109||Psychological Distress and Coronavirus Fears During the Initial Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States |
|J Ment Health Policy Econ||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|110||The role of wildlife in emerging and re-emerging zoonoses |
|Rev Sci Tech||2004||CORD-19|
|111||Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations associated with severe coronavirus infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis with comparison to the COVID-19 pandemic |
BACKGROUND: Before the COVID-19 pandemic, coronaviruses caused two noteworthy outbreaks: severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), starting in 2002, and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), starting in 2012. We aimed to assess the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases (from their inception until March 18, 2020), and medRxiv, bioRxiv, and PsyArXiv (between Jan 1, 2020, and April 10, 2020) were searched by two independent researchers for all English-language studies or preprints reporting data on the psychiatric and neuropsychiatric presentations of individuals with suspected or laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection (SARS coronavirus, MERS coronavirus, or SARS coronavirus 2). We excluded studies limited to neurological complications without specified neuropsychiatric presentations and those investigating the indirect effects of coronavirus infections on the mental health of people who are not infected, such as those mediated through physical distancing measures such as self-isolation or quarantine. Outcomes were psychiatric signs or symptoms; symptom severity; diagnoses based on ICD-10, DSM-IV, or the Chinese Classification of Mental Disorders (third edition) or psychometric scales; quality of life; and employment. Both the systematic review and the meta-analysis stratified outcomes across illness stages (acute vs post-illness) for SARS and MERS. We used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis, and the meta-analytical effect size was prevalence for relevant outcomes, I(2) statistics, and assessment of study quality. FINDINGS: 1963 studies and 87 preprints were identified by the systematic search, of which 65 peer-reviewed studies and seven preprints met inclusion criteria. The number of coronavirus cases of the included studies was 3559, ranging from 1 to 997, and the mean age of participants in studies ranged from 12·2 years (SD 4·1) to 68·0 years (single case report). Studies were from China, Hong Kong, South Korea, Canada, Saudi Arabia, France, Japan, Singapore, the UK, and the USA. Follow-up time for the post-illness studies varied between 60 days and 12 years. The systematic review revealed that during the acute illness, common symptoms among patients admitted to hospital for SARS or MERS included confusion (36 [27·9%; 95% CI 20·5–36·0] of 129 patients), depressed mood (42 [32·6%; 24·7–40·9] of 129), anxiety (46 [35·7%; 27·6–44·2] of 129), impaired memory (44 [34·1%; 26·2–42·5] of 129), and insomnia (54 [41·9%; 22·5–50·5] of 129). Steroid-induced mania and psychosis were reported in 13 (0·7%) of 1744 patients with SARS in the acute stage in one study. In the post-illness stage, depressed mood (35 [10·5%; 95% CI 7·5–14·1] of 332 patients), insomnia (34 [12·1%; 8·6–16·3] of 280), anxiety (21 [12·3%; 7·7–17·7] of 171), irritability (28 [12·8%; 8·7–17·6] of 218), memory impairment (44 [18·9%; 14·1–24·2] of 233), fatigue (61 [19·3%; 15·1–23·9] of 316), and in one study traumatic memories (55 [30·4%; 23·9–37·3] of 181) and sleep disorder (14 [100·0%; 88·0–100·0] of 14) were frequently reported. The meta-analysis indicated that in the post-illness stage the point prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder was 32·2% (95% CI 23·7–42·0; 121 of 402 cases from four studies), that of depression was 14·9% (12·1–18·2; 77 of 517 cases from five studies), and that of anxiety disorders was 14·8% (11·1–19·4; 42 of 284 cases from three studies). 446 (76·9%; 95% CI 68·1–84·6) of 580 patients from six studies had returned to work at a mean follow-up time of 35·3 months (SD 40·1). When data for patients with COVID-19 were examined (including preprint data), there was evidence for delirium (confusion in 26 [65%] of 40 intensive care unit patients and agitation in 40 [69%] of 58 intensive care unit patients in one study, and altered consciousness in 17 [21%] of 82 patients who subsequently died in another study). At discharge, 15 (33%) of 45 patients with COVID-19 who were assessed had a dysexecutive syndrome in one study. At the time of writing, there were two reports of hypoxic encephalopathy and one report of encephalitis. 68 (94%) of the 72 studies were of either low or medium quality. INTERPRETATION: If infection with SARS-CoV-2 follows a similar course to that with SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV, most patients should recover without experiencing mental illness. SARS-CoV-2 might cause delirium in a significant proportion of patients in the acute stage. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of depression, anxiety, fatigue, post-traumatic stress disorder, and rarer neuropsychiatric syndromes in the longer term. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and University College London.
|Lancet Psychiatry||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|112||Citizens' Adherence to COVID-19 Mitigation Recommendations by the Government: A 3-Country Comparative Evaluation Using Web-Based Cross-Sectional Survey Data |
BACKGROUND: Social distancing is an effective preventative policy for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that is enforced by governments worldwide. However, significant variations are observed in following the policy across individuals and countries. Arguably, differences in citizens’ adherence actions will be influenced by their perceptions about government’s plans and the information available to guide their behaviors—more so in the digital age in the realm of mass influence of social media on citizens. Insights into the underlying factors and dynamics involved with citizens’ adherence process will inform the policy makers to follow appropriate communication and messaging approaches to influence citizens’ willingness to adhere to the recommendations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is a comparative evaluation of citizens’ adherence process to COVID-19–relevant recommendations by the government. The focus is on how three different countries’ (United States, Kuwait, and South Korea) citizens, randomly sampled, respond to governments’ pandemic guidance efforts. We draw insights into two categories of perceived government roles in managing the pandemic: (1) citizens’ perceptions of government’s role in responding to the pandemic and (2) citizens’ perceptions of government’s business reopening efforts. Undoubtedly, the internet and social media have burgeoned, with differing effects on shaping individuals’ views and assessments of the COVID-19 situation; we argue and test for the effects of information sources, social media use, and knowledge on the adherence actions. METHODS: We randomly sampled web-based survey data collected by a global firm in May 2020 from citizens of the United States, Kuwait, and South Korea. A nonlinear ordered probit regression, controlling for several counterfactuals, was used for analysis. The focal estimated effects of the study were compared across countries using the weighted distance between the parameter estimates. RESULTS: The total sample size was 482 respondents, of which 207 (43%) lived in the United States, 181 (38%) lived in Kuwait, and 94 (20%) lived in South Korea. The ordered probit estimation results suggest that overall, perception of government response efforts positively influenced self-adherence (P<.001) and others’ adherence (P<.001) to social distancing and sheltering. Perception of government business reopening efforts positively influenced others’ adherence (P<.001). A higher intensity of general health information source for COVID-19 had a positive effect on self-adherence (P=.003). A higher intensity of social media source use for COVID-19 positively influenced others’ adherence (P=.002). A higher intensity of knowledge on COVID-19 positively influenced self-adherence (P=.008) and negatively influenced others’ adherence (P<.001). There were country-level variations—broadly, the United States and Kuwait had better effects than South Korea. CONCLUSIONS: As the COVID-19 global pandemic continues to grow and governmental restrictions are ongoing, it is critical to understand people’s frustration to reduce panic and promote social distancing to facilitate the control of the pandemic. This study finds that the government plays a central role in terms of adherence to restrictions. Governments need to enhance their efforts on publicizing information on the pandemic, as well as employ strategies for improved communication management to citizens through social media as well as mainstream information sources.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|113||Coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) structure: basis for design of anti-SARS drugs |
|114||Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA |
|Nucleic Acids Res||2000||CORD-19|
|115||COVID-19 vaccines: comparison of biological, pharmacological characteristics and adverse effects of Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines |
|Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|116||Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis |
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute infectious disease that spreads mainly via the respiratory route. A distinct coronavirus (SARS‐CoV) has been identified as the aetiological agent of SARS. Recently, a metallopeptidase named angiotensin‐converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been identified as the functional receptor for SARS‐CoV. Although ACE2 mRNA is known to be present in virtually all organs, its protein expression is largely unknown. Since identifying the possible route of infection has major implications for understanding the pathogenesis and future treatment strategies for SARS, the present study investigated the localization of ACE2 protein in various human organs (oral and nasal mucosa, nasopharynx, lung, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, liver, kidney, and brain). The most remarkable finding was the surface expression of ACE2 protein on lung alveolar epithelial cells and enterocytes of the small intestine. Furthermore, ACE2 was present in arterial and venous endothelial cells and arterial smooth muscle cells in all organs studied. In conclusion, ACE2 is abundantly present in humans in the epithelia of the lung and small intestine, which might provide possible routes of entry for the SARS‐CoV. This epithelial expression, together with the presence of ACE2 in vascular endothelium, also provides a first step in understanding the pathogenesis of the main SARS disease manifestations. Copyright © 2004 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
|117||An efficient method to make human monoclonal antibodies from memory B cells: potent neutralization of SARS coronavirus |
Passive serotherapy can confer immediate protection against microbial infection, but methods to rapidly generate human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are not yet available. We have developed an improved method for Epstein-Barr virus transformation of human B cells. We used this method to analyze the memory repertoire of a patient who recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection and to isolate monoclonal antibodies specific for different viral proteins, including 35 antibodies with in vitro neutralizing activity ranging from 10(−8)M to 10(−11)M. One such antibody confers protection in vivo in a mouse model of SARS-CoV infection. These results show that it is possible to interrogate the memory repertoire of immune donors to rapidly and efficiently isolate neutralizing antibodies that have been selected in the course of natural infection. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/nm1080) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
|118||Clinical Characteristics and Morbidity Associated With COVID-19 in a Series of Patients in Metropolitan Detroit |
IMPORTANCE: In late December 2019, an outbreak caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 emerged in Wuhan, China. Data on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of infected patients in urban communities in the US are limited. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to perform a comparative analysis of hospitalized and ambulatory patient populations. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This study is a case series of 463 consecutive patients with COVID-19 evaluated at Henry Ford Health System in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, from March 9 to March 27, 2020. Data analysis was performed from March to April 2020. EXPOSURE: Laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Demographic data, underlying comorbidities, clinical presentation, complications, treatment, and outcomes were collected. RESULTS: Of 463 patients with COVID-19 (mean [SD] age, 57.5 [16.8] years), 259 (55.9%) were female, and 334 (72.1%) were African American. Most patients (435 [94.0%]) had at least 1 comorbidity, including hypertension (295 patients [63.7%]), chronic kidney disease (182 patients [39.3%]), and diabetes (178 patients [38.4%]). Common symptoms at presentation were cough (347 patients [74.9%]), fever (315 patients [68.0%]), and dyspnea (282 patients [60.9%]). Three hundred fifty-five patients (76.7%) were hospitalized; 141 (39.7%) required intensive care unit management and 114 (80.8%) of those patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2; P = .001), severe obesity (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-3.6; P = .02), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.3; P = .006) were independently associated with intensive care unit admission. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit had longer length of stay and higher incidence of respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury requiring dialysis, shock, and mortality (57 patients [40.4%] vs 15 patients [7.0%]) compared with patients in the general practice unit. Twenty-nine (11.2%) of those discharged from the hospital were readmitted and, overall, 20.0% died within 30 days. Male sex (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1; P = .03) and age older than 60 years (OR, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.9-9.7; P < .001) were significantly associated with mortality, whereas African American race was not (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.54-1.8; P = .86). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this review of urban metropolitan patients with COVID-19, most were African American with a high prevalence of comorbid conditions and high rates of hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, complications, and mortality due to COVID-19.
|JAMA Netw Open||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|119||Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults||Clin Infect Dis||2007||CORD-19|
|120||Rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection assay in comparison with real-time RT-PCR assay for laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19 in Thailand |
BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to spread across the world. Hence, there is an urgent need for rapid, simple, and accurate tests to diagnose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Performance characteristics of the rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test should be evaluated and compared with the gold standard real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for diagnosis of COVID-19 cases. METHODS: The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test, Standard™ Q COVID-19 Ag kit (SD Biosensor®, Republic of Korea), was compared with the real-time RT-PCR test, Allplex™ 2019-nCoV Assay (Seegene®, Korea) for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in respiratory specimens. Four hundred fifty-four respiratory samples (mainly nasopharyngeal and throat swabs) were obtained from COVID-19 suspected cases and contact individuals, including pre-operative patients at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand during March–May 2020. RESULTS: Of 454 respiratory samples, 60 (13.2%) were positive, and 394 (86.8%) were negative for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by real-time RT-PCR assay. The duration from onset to laboratory test in COVID-19 suspected cases and contact individuals ranged from 0 to 14 days with a median of 3 days. The rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test’s sensitivity and specificity were 98.33% (95% CI, 91.06–99.96%) and 98.73% (95% CI, 97.06–99.59%), respectively. One false negative test result was from a sample with a high real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct), while five false positive test results were from specimens of pre-operative patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid assay for SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection showed comparable sensitivity and specificity with the real-time RT-PCR assay. Thus, there is a potential use of this rapid and simple SARS-CoV-2 antigen detection test as a screening assay.
|Virol J||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|121||Racial and Ethnic Digital Divides in Posting COVID-19 Content on Social Media Among US Adults: Secondary Survey Analysis |
BACKGROUND: Public health surveillance experts are leveraging user-generated content on social media to track the spread and effects of COVID-19. However, racial and ethnic digital divides, which are disparities among people who have internet access and post on social media, can bias inferences. This bias is particularly problematic in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic because due to structural inequalities, members of racial and ethnic minority groups are disproportionately vulnerable to contracting the virus and to the deleterious economic and social effects from mitigation efforts. Further, important demographic intersections with race and ethnicity, such as gender and age, are rarely investigated in work characterizing social media users; however, they reflect additional axes of inequality shaping differential exposure to COVID-19 and its effects. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize how the race and ethnicity of US adults are associated with their odds of posting COVID-19 content on social media and how gender and age modify these odds. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of a survey conducted by the Pew Research Center from March 19 to 24, 2020, using a national probability sample (N=10,510). Respondents were recruited from an online panel, where panelists without an internet-enabled device were given one to keep at no cost. The binary dependent variable was responses to an item asking whether respondents “used social media to share or post information about the coronavirus.” We used survey-weighted logistic regressions to estimate the odds of responding in the affirmative based on the race and ethnicity of respondents (white, black, Latino, other race/ethnicity), adjusted for covariates measuring sociodemographic background and COVID-19 experiences. We examined how gender (female, male) and age (18 to 30 years, 31 to 50 years, 51 to 64 years, and 65 years and older) intersected with race and ethnicity by estimating interactions. RESULTS: Respondents who identified as black (odds ratio [OR] 1.29, 95% CI 1.02-1.64; P=.03), Latino (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.36-2.04; P<.001), or other races/ethnicities (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.72; P=.03) had higher odds than respondents who identified as white of reporting that they posted COVID-19 content on social media. Women had higher odds of posting than men regardless of race and ethnicity (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.39-1.80; P<.001). Among men, respondents who identified as black, Latino, or members of other races/ethnicities were significantly more likely to post than respondents who identified as white. Older adults (65 years or older) had significantly lower odds (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.57-0.94; P=.01) of posting compared to younger adults (18-29 years), particularly among those identifying as other races/ethnicities. Latino respondents were the most likely to report posting across all age groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the United States, members of racial and ethnic minority groups are most likely to contribute to COVID-19 content on social media, particularly among groups traditionally less likely to use social media (older adults and men). The next step is to ensure that data collection procedures capture this diversity by encompassing a breadth of search criteria and social media platforms.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|122||Association of Cardiac Injury With Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19 in Wuhan, China |
|JAMA Cardiol||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|123||Assessing the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Spain: Large-Scale, Online, Self-Reported Population Survey |
BACKGROUND: Spain has been one of the countries most impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the first confirmed case was reported on January 31, 2020, there have been over 405,000 cases and 28,000 deaths in Spain. The economic and social impact is without precedent. Thus, it is important to quickly assess the situation and perception of the population. Large-scale online surveys have been shown to be an effective tool for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess the situation and perception of the Spanish population in four key areas related to the COVID-19 pandemic: social contact behavior during confinement, personal economic impact, labor situation, and health status. METHODS: We obtained a large sample using an online survey with 24 questions related to COVID-19 in the week of March 28-April 2, 2020, during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in Spain. The self-selection online survey method of nonprobability sampling was used to recruit 156,614 participants via social media posts that targeted the general adult population (age >18 years). Given such a large sample, the 95% CI was ±0.843 for all reported proportions. RESULTS: Regarding social behavior during confinement, participants mainly left their homes to satisfy basic needs. We found several statistically significant differences in social behavior across genders and age groups. The population’s willingness to comply with the confinement measures is evident. From the survey answers, we identified a significant adverse economic impact of the pandemic on those working in small businesses and a negative correlation between economic damage and willingness to stay in confinement. The survey revealed that close contacts play an important role in the transmission of the disease, and 28% of the participants lacked the necessary resources to properly isolate themselves. We also identified a significant lack of testing, with only 1% of the population tested and 6% of respondents unable to be tested despite their doctor’s recommendation. We developed a generalized linear model to identify the variables that were correlated with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result. Using this model, we estimated an average of 5% for SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in the Spanish population during the time of the study. A seroprevalence study carried out later by the Spanish Ministry of Health reported a similar level of disease prevalence (5%). CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale online population surveys, distributed via social media and online messaging platforms, can be an effective, cheap, and fast tool to assess the impact and prevalence of an infectious disease in the context of a pandemic, particularly when there is a scarcity of official data and limited testing capacity.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|124||Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronto, Canada |
|125||Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro||Cell Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|126||A prospective, randomized, controlled study assessing vagus nerve stimulation using the gammaCore-Sapphire device for patients with moderate to severe CoViD-19 Respiratory Symptoms (SAVIOR): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial" |
OBJECTIVES: Primary Objective: The primary objective is to reduce initiation of mechanical ventilator dependency in patients with moderate to severe CoViD- 19. This will be measured as the difference between the control group and active group for subjects admitted to the hospital for CoViD-19. Secondary Objectives: • To evaluate cytokine trends / Prevent cytokine storms • To evaluate supplemental oxygen requirements • To decrease mortality of CoViD-19 patients • Delay onset of ventilation TRIAL DESIGN: The study is a single centre, 2-arm, prospective, randomized (ratio 1:1), controlled trial with parallel groups design to compare the reduction of respiratory distress in a CoViD-19 population, using the intervention of the gammaCore®-Sapphire device plus standard of care (active) vs. standard of care alone (SoC) - the control group. The gammaCore® treatments will be used acutely and prophylactically. The active and control groups will be matched for disease and severity. PARTICIPANTS: i. Inclusion Criteria 1. Patient older than 18 years. 2. Been tested positive or suspected/presumed positive for CoViD-19. Has a cough, shortness of breath or respiratory O(2): 3. Agree to use the gammaCore®-Sapphire device as intended and to follow all of the requirements of the study including recording required study data; 4. Patient is able to provide signed and witnessed Informed Consent; ii. Exclusion Criteria 1. Pregnant women. 2. On home/therapy oxygen (i.e. for patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) at baseline prior to development of CoViD-19. 3. Patient already enrolled in a clinical trial using immunotherapeutic regimen for CoViD-19. 4. History of aneurysm, intracranial hemorrhage, brain tumors, or significant head trauma. 5. Known or suspected severe atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, severe carotid artery disease (eg, bruits or history of transient ischemic attack or cerebrovascular accident), congestive heart failure, known severe coronary artery disease, or recent myocardial infarction. 6. Uncontrolled high blood pressure (>140/90). 7. Current implantation of an electrical and/or neurostimulator device, including but not limited to a cardiac pacemaker or defibrillator, vagal neurostimulator, deep brain stimulator, spinal stimulator, bone growth stimulator, or cochlear implant. 8. Current implantation of metal cervical spine hardware or a metallic implant near the gammaCore stimulation site. 9. Belongs to a vulnerable population or has any condition such that his or her ability to provide informed consent, comply with the follow-up requirements, or provide self-assessments is compromised (e.g. homeless, developmentally disabled and prisoner). Participants will be recruited from Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia in Spain. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Prophylactic: Administer 2 doses (at 2 minutes each) of gammaCore®(-)Sapphire, one dose on each side of the neck scheduled three times a day (morning, mid-day and 1 hour before bed at night). Acute respiratory failure or shortness of breath: Administer 2 doses (at 2 minutes each) of gammaCore®-Sapphire, one on each side of the neck. If shortness of breath (SOB) persists 20 minutes after the start of the first treatment, a second dose will be administered. Max doses per day is 9 or 18 stimulations. Plus standard of care. Standard of care: oxygen therapy, antibiotics and ventilatory support if necessary depending on the clinic. MAIN OUTCOMES: Initiation of mechanical ventilation, from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. Safety; ascertainment of Adverse Effects/Serious Adverse Events, from randomisation to ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. Cytokine Storm measured by: Tumor necrosis factor α, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 1β. Days 1,3,5,10,15 and/or at hospital discharge. Mortality and/or need for Critical Care admission, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first, O2 saturation levels , from randomization until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. Need for supplemental oxygen, from randomisation until ICU admission or hospital discharge, whatever occurs first. RANDOMISATION: The patients are classified according to their oxygen levels as mild, moderate and severe and randomized according to their classification to the intervention and control in a ratio of 1:1. The randomization will be stratified for gender and age. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open label study, it is not possible to blind the participants and healthcare providers to the intervention. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total number of patients to be included in the study is 90, with 45 in each study group TRIAL STATUS: The protocol version is 8.0 from 07(th) April 2020. The recruitment began 20th April 2020 and is expected to be complete 31st July 2020. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered in clinicaltrials.gov on 29th April 2020 with the identification number: NCT04368156 FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.
|Trials||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|127||A prospective, randomized, single-blinded, crossover trial to investigate the effect of a wearable device in addition to a daily symptom diary for the remote early detection of SARS-CoV-2 infections (COVID-RED): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial |
OBJECTIVES: It is currently thought that most—but not all—individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop symptoms, but that the infectious period starts on average two days before the first overt symptoms appear. It is estimated that pre- and asymptomatic individuals are responsible for more than half of all transmissions. By detecting infected individuals before they have overt symptoms, wearable devices could potentially and significantly reduce the proportion of transmissions by pre-symptomatic individuals. the algorithm using Ava bracelet data when coupled with self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo; experimental condition); the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone (Symptom Only Algo; control condition). In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. TRIAL DESIGN: The trial is a randomized, single-blinded, two-period, two-sequence crossover trial. All subjects will participate in an initial Learning Phase (varying from 2 weeks to 3 months depending on enrolment date), followed by two contiguous 3-month test phases, Period 1 and Period 2. Each subject will undergo the experimental condition (the Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) in one of these periods and the control condition (Symptom Only Algo) in the other period. The order will be randomly assigned, resulting in subjects being allocated 1:1 to either Sequence 1 (experimental condition first) or Sequence 2 (control condition first). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. PARTICIPANTS: The trial will be conducted in the Netherlands. A target of 20,000 subjects will be enrolled. Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence. This results in approximately 6,500 normal-risk individuals and 3,500 high-risk individuals per sequence. Subjects will be recruited from previously studied cohorts as well as via public campaigns and social media. All data for this study will be collected remotely through the Ava COVID-RED app, the Ava bracelet, surveys in the COVID-RED web portal, and self-sampling serology and PCR kits. During recruitment, subjects will be invited to visit the COVID-RED web portal (www.covid-red.eu). After successfully completing the enrolment questionnaire, meeting eligibility criteria and indicating interest in joining the study, subjects will receive the subject information sheet and informed consent form. Subjects can enrol in COVID-RED if they comply with the following inclusion and exclusion criteria. Resident of the Netherlands. At least 18 years old. Informed consent provided (electronic). Willing to adhere to the study procedures described in the protocol. Must have a smartphone that runs at least Android 8.0 or iOS 13.0 operating systems and is active for the duration of the study (in the case of a change of mobile number, study team should be notified). Be able to read, understand and write Dutch. Previous positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (confirmed either through PCR/antigen or antibody tests; self-reported). Previously received a vaccine developed specifically for COVID-19 or in possession of an appointment for vaccination in the near future (self-reported). Current suspected (e.g., waiting for test result) COVID-19 infection or symptoms of a COVID-19 infection (self-reported). Participating in any other COVID-19 clinical drug, vaccine, or medical device trial (self-reported). Electronic implanted device (such as a pacemaker; self-reported). Pregnant at time of informed consent (self-reported). Suffering from cholinergic urticaria (per the Ava bracelet’s User Manual; self-reported). Staff involved in the management or conduct of this study. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: All subjects will be instructed to complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app daily, wear their Ava bracelet each night and synchronise it with the app each day for the entire period of study participation. Provided with wearable sensor and/or self-reported symptom data within the last 24 hours, the Ava COVID-RED app’s underlying algorithms will provide subjects with a real-time indicator of their overall health and well-being. Subjects will see one of three messages, notifying them that: no seeming deviations in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected; some changes in symptoms and/or physiological parameters have been detected and they should self-isolate; or alerting them that deviations in their symptoms and/or physiological parameters could be suggestive of a potential COVID-19 infection and to seek additional testing. We will assess intraperson performance of the algorithms in the experimental condition (Wearable + Symptom Data Algo) and control conditions (Symptom Only Algo). MAIN OUTCOMES: The trial will evaluate the use and performance of the Ava COVID-RED app and Ava bracelet, which uses sensors to measure breathing rate, pulse rate, skin temperature, and heart rate variability for the purpose of early and asymptomatic detection and monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in general and high-risk populations. Using laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections (detected via serology tests, PCR tests and/or antigen tests) as the gold standard, we will determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for each of the following two algorithms to detect first-time SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection: the algorithm using Ava Bracelet data when coupled with the self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data, and the algorithm using self-reported Daily Symptom Diary data alone. In addition, we will determine which of the two algorithms has superior performance characteristics for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infection including early or asymptomatic infection as confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 virus testing. The protocol contains an additional seventeen secondary outcomes which address infection incidence rates, health resource utilization, symptoms reported by SARS-CoV-2 infected participants, and the rate of breakthrough and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections among individuals vaccinated against COVID-19. PCR or antigen testing will occur when the subject receives a notification from the algorithm to seek additional testing. Subjects will be advised to get tested via the national testing programme, and report the testing result in the Ava COVID-RED app and a survey. If they cannot obtain a test via the national testing programme, they will receive a nasal swab self-sampling kit at home, and the sample will be tested by PCR in a trial-affiliated laboratory. In addition, all subjects will be asked to take a capillary blood sample at home at baseline (Month 0), and at the end of the Learning Phase (Month 3), Period 1 (Month 6) and Period 2 (Month 9). These samples will be used for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody testing in a trial-affiliated laboratory, differentiating between antibodies resulting from a natural infection and antibodies resulting from COVID-19 vaccination (as vaccination will gradually be rolled out during the trial period). Baseline samples will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of the Learning Phase is positive, and samples collected at the end of Period 1 will only be analysed if the sample collected at the end of Period 2 is positive. When subjects obtain a positive PCR/antigen or serology test result during the study, they will continue to be in the study but will be moved into a so-called “COVID-positive” mode in the Ava COVID-RED app. This means that they will no longer receive recommendations from the algorithms but can still contribute and track symptom and bracelet data. The primary analysis of the main objective will be executed using data collected in Period 2 (Month 6 through 9). Within this period, serology tests (before and after Period 2) and PCR/antigen tests (taken based on recommendations by the algorithms) will be used to determine if a subject was infected with SARS-CoV-2 or not. Within this same time period, it will be determined if the algorithms gave any recommendations for testing. The agreement between these quantities will be used to evaluate the performance of the algorithms and how these compare between the study conditions. RANDOMISATION: All eligible subjects will be randomized using a stratified block randomization approach with an allocation ratio of 1:1 to one of two sequences (experimental condition followed by control condition or control condition followed by experimental condition). Based on demographics, medical history and/or profession, each subject will be stratified at baseline into a high-risk and normal-risk group within each sequence, resulting in equal numbers of high-risk and normal-risk individuals between the sequences. BLINDING (MASKING): In this study, subjects will be blinded as to study condition and randomization sequence. Relevant study staff and the device manufacturer will be aware of the assigned sequence. The subject will wear the Ava bracelet and complete the Daily Symptom Diary in the Ava COVID-RED app for the full duration of the study, and they will not know if the feedback they receive about their potential infection status will only be based on data they entered in the Daily Symptom Diary within the Ava COVID-RED app or based on both the data from the Daily Symptom Diary and the Ava bracelet. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): 20,000 subjects will be recruited and randomized 1:1 to either Sequence 1 (experimental condition followed by control condition) or Sequence 2 (control condition followed by experimental condition), taking into account their risk level. This results in approximately 6,500 normal-risk and 3,500 high-risk individuals per sequence. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version: 1.2, dated January 22(nd), 2021 Start of recruitment: February 22(nd), 2021 End of recruitment (estimated): April 2021 End of follow-up (estimated): December 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been registered at the Netherlands Trial Register on the 18(th) of February, 2021 with number NL9320 (https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9320) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13063-021-05241-5.
|Trials||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|128||Unique and Conserved Features of Genome and Proteome of SARS-coronavirus, an Early Split-off From the Coronavirus Group 2 Lineage |
Abstract The genome organization and expression strategy of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were predicted using recently published genome sequences. Fourteen putative open reading frames were identified, 12 of which were predicted to be expressed from a nested set of eight subgenomic mRNAs. The synthesis of these mRNAs in SARS-CoV-infected cells was confirmed experimentally. The 4382- and 7073 amino acid residue SARS-CoV replicase polyproteins are predicted to be cleaved into 16 subunits by two viral proteinases (bringing the total number of SARS-CoV proteins to 28). A phylogenetic analysis of the replicase gene, using a distantly related torovirus as an outgroup, demonstrated that, despite a number of unique features, SARS-CoV is most closely related to group 2 coronaviruses. Distant homologs of cellular RNA processing enzymes were identified in group 2 coronaviruses, with four of them being conserved in SARS-CoV. These newly recognized viral enzymes place the mechanism of coronavirus RNA synthesis in a completely new perspective. Furthermore, together with previously described viral enzymes, they will be important targets for the design of antiviral strategies aimed at controlling the further spread of SARS-CoV.
|J Mol Biol||2003||CORD-19|
|129||The novel zoonotic COVID-19 pandemic: An expected global health concern |
|J Infect Dev Ctries||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|130||Koch's postulates fulfilled for SARS virus |
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) has recently emerged as a new human disease, resulting globally in 435 deaths from 6,234 probable cases (as of 3 May 2003). Here we provide proof from experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) that the newly discovered SARS-associated coronavirus (SCV) is the aetiological agent of this disease. Our understanding of the aetiology of SARS will expedite the development of diagnostic tests, antiviral therapies and vaccines, and may allow a more concise case definition for this emerging disease. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version of this article (doi:10.1038/423240a) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
|131||Investigating the Prevalence of Reactive Online Searching in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Infoveillance Study |
BACKGROUND: The ongoing pandemic has placed an unprecedented strain on global society, health care, governments, and mass media. Public dissemination of government policies, medical interventions, and misinformation has been remarkably rapid and largely unregulated during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased misinterpretations, miscommunication, and public panic. Being the first full-scale global pandemic of the digital age, COVID-19 has presented novel challenges pertinent to government advice, the spread of news and misinformation, and the trade-off between the accessibility of science and the premature public use of unproven medical interventions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the use of internet search terms relating to COVID-19 information and misinformation during the global pandemic, identify which were most used in six affected countries, investigate any temporal trends and the likely propagators of key search terms, and determine any correlation between the per capita cases and deaths with the adoption of these search terms in each of the six countries. METHODS: This study uses relative search volume data extracted from Google Trends for search terms linked to the COVID-19 pandemic alongside per capita case and mortality data extracted from the European Open Data Portal to identify the temporal dynamics of the spread of news and misinformation during the global pandemic in six affected countries (Australia, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States). A correlation analysis was carried out to ascertain any correlation between the temporal trends of search term use and the rise of per capita mortality and disease cases. RESULTS: Of the selected search terms, most were searched immediately following promotion by governments, public figures, or viral circulation of information, but also in relation to the publication of scientific resources, which were sometimes misinterpreted before further dissemination. Strong correlations were identified between the volume of these COVID-19–related search terms (overall mean Spearman rho 0.753, SD 0.158), and per capita mortality (mean per capita deaths Spearman rho 0.690, SD 0.168) and cases (mean per capita cases Spearman rho 0.800, SD 0.112). CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate the increased rate and volume of the public consumption of novel information during a global health care crisis. The positive correlation between mortality and online searching, particularly in countries with lower COVID-19 testing rates, may demonstrate the imperative to safeguard official communications and dispel misinformation in these countries. Online news, government briefings, and social media provide a powerful tool for the dissemination of important information to the public during pandemics, but their misuse and the presentation of misrepresented medical information should be monitored, minimized, and addressed to safeguard public safety. Ultimately, governments, public health authorities, and scientists have a moral imperative to safeguard the truth and maintain an accessible discourse with the public to limit fear.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|132||Effects of Internet Hospital Consultations on Psychological Burdens and Disease Knowledge During the Early Outbreak of COVID-19 in China: Cross-Sectional Survey Study |
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global threat to human health. Internet hospitals have emerged as a critical technology to bring epidemic-related web-based services and medical support to the public. However, only a few very recent scientific literature reports have explored the effects of internet hospitals on psychological burden and disease knowledge in major public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role of internet hospitals in relieving psychological burden and increasing disease knowledge during the early outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This survey was conducted from January 26 to February 1, 2020, during the early outbreak of COVID-19 in China. The platform used for the consultation was the WeChat public account of our hospital. To participate in the study, the patient was required to answer a list of questions to exclude the possibility of COVID-19 infection and confirm their willingness to participate voluntarily. Next, the participant was directed to complete the self-report questionnaire. After the internet consultation, the participant was directed to complete the self-report questionnaire again. The questionnaire included sections on general information, the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), and the participant’s worries, disease knowledge, and need for hospital treatment. RESULTS: The total number of internet consultations was 4120. The consultation topics mainly included respiratory symptoms such as cough, expectoration, and fever (2489/4120, 60.4%) and disease knowledge, anxiety, and fear (1023/4120, 24.8%). A total of 1530 people filled out the questionnaires before and after the internet consultation. Of these people, 1398/1530 (91.4%) experienced psychological stress before the internet consultation, which significantly decreased after consultation (260/1530, 17.0%) (χ(2)(1)=1704.8, P<.001). There was no significant difference in the number of people who expressed concern about the COVID-19 pandemic before and after the internet consultation (χ(2)(1)=0.7, P=.43). However, the degree of concern after the internet consultation was significantly alleviated (t(2699)=90.638, P<.001). The main worries before and after consultation were the dangers posed by the disease and the risk of infection of family members. The scores of the self-assessment risk after the internet consultation were significantly lower than those before consultation (t(3058)=95.694, P<.001). After the consultation, the participants’ knowledge of the symptoms, transmission routes, and preventive measures of COVID-19 was significantly higher than before the consultation (t(3058)=–106.105, –80.456, and –152.605, respectively; all P<.001). The hospital treatment need score after the internet consultation decreased from 3.3 (SD 1.2) to 1.6 (SD 0.8), and the difference was statistically significant (t(3058)=45.765, P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: During the early outbreak of COVID-19, internet hospitals could help relieve psychological burdens and increase disease awareness through timely and rapid spread of knowledge regarding COVID-19 prevention and control. Internet hospitals should be an important aspect of a new medical model in public health emergency systems.
|J Med Internet Res||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|133||Abnormal coagulation parameters are associated with poor prognosis in patients with novel coronavirus pneumonia |
BACKGROUND: In the recent outbreak of novel coronavirus infection in Wuhan, China, significantly abnormal coagulation parameters in severe novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) cases were a concern. OBJECTIVES: To describe the coagulation feature of patients with NCP. METHODS: Conventional coagulation results and outcomes of 183 consecutive patients with confirmed NCP in Tongji hospital were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: The overall mortality was 11.5%, the non‐survivors revealed significantly higher D‐dimer and fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels, longer prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time compared to survivors on admission (P < .05); 71.4% of non‐survivors and 0.6% survivors met the criteria of disseminated intravascular coagulation during their hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows that abnormal coagulation results, especially markedly elevated D‐dimer and FDP are common in deaths with NCP.
|J Thromb Haemost||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|134||Patient experiences of fertility clinic closure during the COVID-19 pandemic: appraisals, coping and emotions |
STUDY QUESTION: What are appraisals, coping strategies and emotional reactions of patients to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) fertility clinic closures? SUMMARY ANSWER: Clinic closure was appraised as stressful due to uncertainty and threat to the attainability of the parenthood goal but patients were able to cope using strategies that fit the uncertainty of the situation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Psychological research on COVID-19 suggests that people are more anxious than historical norms and moderately to extremely upset about fertility treatment cancellation owing to COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The study was of cross-sectional design, comprising a mixed-methods, English language, anonymous, online survey posted from April 09 to April 21 to social media. Eligibility criteria were being affected by COVID-19 fertility clinic closure, 18 years of age or older and able to complete the survey in English. In total, 946 people clicked on the survey link, 76 did not consent, 420 started but did not complete survey, and 450 completed (48% completion, 446 women, four men). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Overall 74.7% (n = 336) of respondents were residents in the UK with an average age of 33.6 years (SD = 4.4) and average years trying to conceive, 3.5 years (SD = 2.22). The survey comprised quantitative questions about the intensity of cognitive appraisals and emotions about clinic closure, and ability to cope with clinic closure. Open-text questions covered their understanding of COVID-19 and its effect on reproductive health and fertility plans, concerns and perceived benefits of clinic closure, and knowledge about closure. Sociodemographic information was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used on quantitative data. Thematic qualitative analysis (inductive coding) was performed on the textual data from each question. Deductive coding grouped themes from each question into meta-themes related to cognitive stress and coping theory. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Most patients (81.6%, n = 367) had tests or treatments postponed, with these being self (41.3%, n = 186) or publicly (46.4%, n = 209) funded. Patients appraised fertility clinic closure as having potential for a more negative than positive impact on their lives, and to be very or extremely uncontrollable and stressful (p ≤ .001). Most reported a slight to moderate ability to cope with closure. Data saturation was achieved with all open-text questions, with 33 broad themes identified and four meta-themes linked to components of the cognitive stress and coping theory. First, participants understood clinic closure was precautionary due to unknown effects of COVID-19 but some felt clinic closure was unfair relative to advice about getting pregnant given to the public. Second, closure was appraised as a threat to attainability of the parenthood goal largely due to uncertainty of the situation (e.g., re-opening, effect of delay) and intensification of pre-existing hardships of fertility problems (e.g., long time waiting for treatment, history of failed treatment). Third, closure taxed personal coping resources but most were able to cope using thought-management (e.g., distraction, focusing on positives), getting mentally and physically fit for next treatments, strengthening their social network, and keeping up-to-date. Finally, participants reported more negative than positive emotions (p ≤ .001) and almost all participants reported stress, worry and frustration at the situation, while some expressed anger and resentment at the unfairness of the situation. Overall, 11.9% were not at all able to cope, with reports of intense feelings of hopelessness and deteriorating wellbeing and mental health. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The survey captures patient reactions at a specific point in time, during lockdown and before clinics announced re-opening. Participants were self-selected (e.g., UK residents, women, 48% starting but not completing the survey), which may affect generalisability. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Fertility stakeholders (e.g., clinics, patient support groups, regulators, professional societies) need to work together to address the great uncertainty from COVID-19. This goal can be met proactively by setting up transparent processes for COVID-19 eventualities and signposting to information and coping resources. Future psychological research priorities should be on identifying patients at risk of distress with standardised measures and developing digital technologies appropriate for the realities of fertility care under COVID-19. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): University funded research. Outside of the submitted work, Professor Boivin reports personal fees from Merck KGaA, Merck AB, Theramex, Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S; grants from Merck Serono Ltd; and that she is co-developer of the Fertility Quality of Life (FertiQoL) and MediEmo apps. Outside of the submitted work, Dr. Mathur reports personal or consultancy fees from Manchester Fertility, Gedeon Richter, Ferring and Merck. Outside of the submitted work, Dr. Gameiro reports consultancy fees from Ferring Pharmaceuticals A/S, Access Fertility and SONA-Pharm LLC, and grants from Merck Serono Ltd. The other authors declare no conflicts of interest. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A
|Hum Reprod||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|135||Experiences, Attitudes and Needs of Users of a Pregnancy and Parenting App (Baby Buddy) During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Mixed Methods Study |
BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the lives of expectant parents and parents of young babies, with disruptions in health care provision and loss of social support. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated lockdown on this population through the lens of users of the UK National Health Service–approved pregnancy and parenting smartphone app, Baby Buddy. The study aims were threefold: to gain insights into the attitudes and experiences of expectant and recent parents (with babies under 24 weeks of age) during the COVID-19 pandemic; to investigate whether Baby Buddy is meeting users’ needs during this time; and to identify ways to revise the content of Baby Buddy to better support its users now and in future. METHODS: A mixed methods study design combining a web-based survey with semistructured telephone interviews among Baby Buddy users in the United Kingdom was applied. Data were collected from April 15 to mid-June 2020, corresponding to weeks 4-13 of the lockdown in the United Kingdom. RESULTS: A total of 436 expectant (n=244, 56.0%) and recent (n=192, 44.0%) parents responded to the web-based survey, of which 79.1% (n=345) were aged 25-39 years and 17.2% (n=75) spoke English as their second language. Of the 436 respondents, 88.5% (386/436) reported increased levels of anxiety around pregnancy, birth, and being a new parent, and 58.0% (253/436) were concerned about their emotional and mental health. Of the 244 pregnant respondents, 43.4% (n=106) were concerned about their physical health. Telephone interviews with 13 pregnant women and 19 recent parents revealed similarly increased levels of anxiety due to reduced health care provision and loss of support from friends and family. Although a minority of respondents identified some positive outcomes of lockdown, such as family bonding, many telephone interviewees reported feeling isolated, disregarded, and overwhelmed. Recent parents were particularly anxious about the impact of the lockdown on their baby’s development and socialization. Many interviewees were also concerned about their physical health as a consequence of both limited access to face-to-face medical appointments and their own poorer dietary and physical activity behaviors. Across both samples, 97.0% (423/436) of respondents reported that Baby Buddy was currently helping them, with many commenting that its role was even more important given the lack of face-to-face support from health care and parenting organizations. Greater speed in updating digital content to reflect changes due to the pandemic was suggested. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has created heightened anxiety and stress among expectant parents and those with a young baby, and for many, lockdown has had an adverse impact on their physical and mental well-being. With reductions in health care and social support, expectant and new parents are increasingly relying on web-based resources. As a free, evidence-based app, Baby Buddy is well positioned to meet this need. The app could support its users even more by actively directing them to the wealth of existing content relevant to their concerns and by adding content to give users the knowledge and confidence to meet new challenges.
|JMIR Mhealth Uhealth||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|136||Mobile technologies to support healthcare provider to healthcare provider communication and management of care |
|Cochrane Database Syst Rev||2020||CORD-19|
|137||Imaging and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 |
BACKGROUND: The pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) recently break out in Wuhan, China, and was named as COVID-19. With the spread of the disease, similar cases have also been confirmed in other regions of China. We aimed to report the imaging and clinical characteristics of these patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China. METHODS: All patients with laboratory-identified SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were collected between January 23, 2020, and February 4, 2020, in a designated hospital (Guangzhou Eighth People’s Hospital). This analysis included 90 patients (39 men and 51 women; median age, 50 years (age range, 18–86 years). All the included SARS-CoV-2-infected patients underwent non-contrast enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patients, as well as the distribution characteristics, pattern, morphology, and accompanying manifestations of lung lesions. In addition, after 1–6 days (mean 3.5 days), follow-up chest CT images were evaluated to assess radiological evolution. FINDINGS: The majority of infected patients had a history of exposure in Wuhan or to infected patients and mostly presented with fever and cough. More than half of the patients presented bilateral, multifocal lung lesions, with peripheral distribution, and 53 (59%) patients had more than two lobes involved. Of all included patients, COVID-19 pneumonia presented with ground glass opacities in 65 (72%), consolidation in 12 (13%), crazy paving pattern in 11 (12%), interlobular thickening in 33 (37%), adjacent pleura thickening in 50 (56%), and linear opacities combined in 55 (61%). Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and lymphadenopathy were uncommon findings. In addition, baseline chest CT did not show any abnormalities in 21 patients (23%), but 3 patients presented bilateral ground glass opacities on the second CT after 3–4 days. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection can be confirmed based on the patient’s history, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, and laboratory tests. Chest CT examination plays an important role in the initial diagnosis of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. Multiple patchy ground glass opacities in bilateral multiple lobular with periphery distribution are typical chest CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia.
|Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|138||The 2019-2020 Novel Coronavirus Pandemic: A Joint American College of Academic International Medicine-World Academic Council of Emergency Medicine Multidisciplinary COVID-19 Working Group Consensus Paper |
What started as a cluster of patients with a mysterious respiratory illness in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, was later determined to be coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel Betacoronavirus, was subsequently isolated as the causative agent. SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted by respiratory droplets and fomites and presents clinically with fever, fatigue, myalgias, conjunctivitis, anosmia, dysgeusia, sore throat, nasal congestion, cough, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, and/or diarrhea. In most critical cases, symptoms can escalate into acute respiratory distress syndrome accompanied by a runaway inflammatory cytokine response and multiorgan failure. As of this article's publication date, COVID-19 has spread to approximately 200 countries and territories, with over 4.3 million infections and more than 290,000 deaths as it has escalated into a global pandemic. Public health concerns mount as the situation evolves with an increasing number of infection hotspots around the globe. New information about the virus is emerging just as rapidly. This has led to the prompt development of clinical patient risk stratification tools to aid in determining the need for testing, isolation, monitoring, ventilator support, and disposition. COVID-19 spread is rapid, including imported cases in travelers, cases among close contacts of known infected individuals, and community-acquired cases without a readily identifiable source of infection. Critical shortages of personal protective equipment and ventilators are compounding the stress on overburdened healthcare systems. The continued challenges of social distancing, containment, isolation, and surge capacity in already stressed hospitals, clinics, and emergency departments have led to a swell in technologically-assisted care delivery strategies, such as telemedicine and web-based triage. As the race to develop an effective vaccine intensifies, several clinical trials of antivirals and immune modulators are underway, though no reliable COVID-19-specific therapeutics (inclusive of some potentially effective single and multi-drug regimens) have been identified as of yet. With many nations and regions declaring a state of emergency, unprecedented quarantine, social distancing, and border closing efforts are underway. Implementation of social and physical isolation measures has caused sudden and profound economic hardship, with marked decreases in global trade and local small business activity alike, and full ramifications likely yet to be felt. Current state-of-science, mitigation strategies, possible therapies, ethical considerations for healthcare workers and policymakers, as well as lessons learned for this evolving global threat and the eventual return to a “new normal” are discussed in this article.
|J Glob Infect Dis||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|139||Could masks curtail the post-lockdown resurgence of COVID-19 in the US? |
The community lockdown measures implemented in the United States from late March to late May of 2020 resulted in a significant reduction in the community transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the country. However, a number of US states are currently experiencing an alarming post-lockdown resurgence of the pandemic, triggering fears for a devastating second pandemic wave. We designed a mathematical model for addressing the key question of whether or not the universal use of face masks can halt such resurgence (and possibly avert a second wave, without having to undergo another cycle of major community lockdown) in the states of Arizona, Florida, New York and the entire US. Model calibration, using cumulative mortality data for the four jurisdictions during their respective pre-lockdown and lockdown periods, show that pre-symptomatic and asymptomatically-infectious individuals are, by far, the main drivers of the COVID-19 pandemic in each of the jurisdictions. The implication of this result is that detecting and isolating individuals with clinical symptoms of the pandemic alone (even if all of them are found) may not be sufficient to effectively curtail the pandemic. To achieve such control, it is crucially-necessary that pre-symptomatic and asymptomatically-infectious individuals are rapidly detected and isolated (and their contacts rapidly traced and tested). Our study highlights the importance of early implementation of the community lockdown measures. In particular, a sizable reduction in the burden of the pandemic would have been recorded in each of the four jurisdictions if the community lockdown measures were implemented a week or two earlier. These reductions are significantly increased if the early implementation of the lockdown measures was complemented with a public face mask use strategy. With all related control measures maintained at their baseline levels, this study shows that the pandemic would have been almost completely suppressed from significantly taking off if the lockdown measures were implemented two weeks earlier, and if a sizable percentage of the residents of the four jurisdictions wore face masks during the respective lockdown periods (mention what happens if lockdown measures were extended by two weeks). We simulated the pandemic in the four jurisdictions under three levels of lifting of community lockdown, namely mild, moderate and high. For the scenario where the control measures adopted are at the baseline levels during the lockdown period, our simulations show that the states of Arizona and Florida will record devastating second waves of the pandemic by the end of 2020, while the state of New York and the entire US will record milder second waves. If the community lockdown measures were lifted at the mild lifting level (i.e., only limited community contacts and business activities are allowed, in comparison to the levels of these activities allowed during the corresponding lockdown period), only the state of Florida will experience a second wave. It is further shown that the severity of the projected second waves depend on the level of lifting of the community lockdown. For instance, the projected second wave for Arizona and Florida will be more severe than their first waves. It is further shown that, for high level of lifting of community lockdown measures, the increased use of face masks after the lockdown period greatly reduces the burden of the pandemic in each jurisdiction. In particular, for this high lockdown lifting scenario, none of the four jurisdictions will experience a second wave if half of their residents wear face masks consistently after their respective lockdown period. A diagnostic testing strategy that increases the maximum detection rate of asymptomatic infected individuals (followed by contact tracing and self-isolation of the detected cases) greatly reduces the burden of the pandemic in all four jurisdictions, particularly if also combined with a universal face mask use strategy. Finally, it is shown that the universal use of face masks in public, with at least moderate level of compliance, could halt the post-lockdown resurgence of COVID-19, in addition to averting the potential for (and severity of) a second wave of the pandemic in each of the four jurisdictions.
|Math Biosci||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|140||Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR |
BACKGROUND: The ongoing outbreak of the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) poses a challenge for public health laboratories as virus isolates are unavailable while there is growing evidence that the outbreak is more widespread than initially thought, and international spread through travellers does already occur. AIM: We aimed to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodology for use in public health laboratory settings without having virus material available. METHODS: Here we present a validated diagnostic workflow for 2019-nCoV, its design relying on close genetic relatedness of 2019-nCoV with SARS coronavirus, making use of synthetic nucleic acid technology. RESULTS: The workflow reliably detects 2019-nCoV, and further discriminates 2019-nCoV from SARS-CoV. Through coordination between academic and public laboratories, we confirmed assay exclusivity based on 297 original clinical specimens containing a full spectrum of human respiratory viruses. Control material is made available through European Virus Archive – Global (EVAg), a European Union infrastructure project. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the enormous response capacity achieved through coordination of academic and public laboratories in national and European research networks.
|Euro Surveill||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|141||THE IMPACT OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON SCHIZOPHRENIA PATIENTS |
|Turk Psikiyatri Derg||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|142||Risk Factors for Hospitalization, Mechanical Ventilation, or Death Among 10 131 US Veterans With SARS-CoV-2 Infection |
IMPORTANCE: Identifying independent risk factors for adverse outcomes in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can support prognostication, resource utilization, and treatment. OBJECTIVE: To identify excess risk and risk factors associated with hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This longitudinal cohort study included 88 747 patients tested for SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction between Feburary 28 and May 14, 2020, and followed up through June 22, 2020, in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) national health care system, including 10 131 patients (11.4%) who tested positive. EXPOSURES: Sociodemographic characteristics, comorbid conditions, symptoms, and laboratory test results. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Risk of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation, and death were estimated in time-to-event analyses using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The 10 131 veterans with SARS-CoV-2 were predominantly male (9221 [91.0%]), with diverse race/ethnicity (5022 [49.6%] White, 4215 [41.6%] Black, and 944 [9.3%] Hispanic) and a mean (SD) age of 63.6 (16.2) years. Compared with patients who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, those who tested positive had higher rates of 30-day hospitalization (30.4% vs 29.3%; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.13; 95% CI, 1.08-1.13), mechanical ventilation (6.7% vs 1.7%; aHR, 4.15; 95% CI, 3.74-4.61), and death (10.8% vs 2.4%; aHR, 4.44; 95% CI, 4.07-4.83). Among patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, characteristics significantly associated with mortality included older age (eg, ≥80 years vs <50 years: aHR, 60.80; 95% CI, 29.67-124.61), high regional COVID-19 disease burden (eg, ≥700 vs <130 deaths per 1 million residents: aHR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.45), higher Charlson comorbidity index score (eg, ≥5 vs 0: aHR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.54-2.42), fever (aHR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.32-1.72), dyspnea (aHR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.53-2.07), and abnormalities in the certain blood tests, which exhibited dose-response associations with mortality, including aspartate aminotransferase (>89 U/L vs ≤25 U/L: aHR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.35-2.57), creatinine (>3.80 mg/dL vs 0.98 mg/dL: aHR, 3.79; 95% CI, 2.62-5.48), and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (>12.70 vs ≤2.71: aHR, 2.88; 95% CI, 2.12-3.91). With the exception of geographic region, the same covariates were independently associated with mechanical ventilation along with Black race (aHR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.25-1.85), male sex (aHR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.30-3.32), diabetes (aHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.18-1.67), and hypertension (aHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.64). Notable characteristics that were not significantly associated with mortality in adjusted analyses included obesity (body mass index ≥35 vs 18.5-24.9: aHR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77-1.21), Black race (aHR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.21), Hispanic ethnicity (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.79-1.35), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aHR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.88-1.19), hypertension (aHR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.12), and smoking (eg, current vs never: aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.67-1.13). Most deaths in this cohort occurred in patients with age of 50 years or older (63.4%), male sex (12.3%), and Charlson Comorbidity Index score of at least 1 (11.1%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this national cohort of VA patients, most SARS-CoV-2 deaths were associated with older age, male sex, and comorbidity burden. Many factors previously reported to be associated with mortality in smaller studies were not confirmed, such as obesity, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, and smoking.
|JAMA Netw Open||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|143||A hundred days into the coronavirus disease pandemic||Euro Surveill||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|144||Global, regional and national incidence, prevalence and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 |
|145||Efficacy and Safety of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine |
BACKGROUND: Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle–encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. METHODS: This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 99 centers across the United States. Persons at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or its complications were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 μg) or placebo 28 days apart. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The trial enrolled 30,420 volunteers who were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either vaccine or placebo (15,210 participants in each group). More than 96% of participants received both injections, and 2.2% had evidence (serologic, virologic, or both) of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline. Symptomatic Covid-19 illness was confirmed in 185 participants in the placebo group (56.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7 to 65.3) and in 11 participants in the mRNA-1273 group (3.3 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0); vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3 to 96.8%; P<0.001). Efficacy was similar across key secondary analyses, including assessment 14 days after the first dose, analyses that included participants who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline, and analyses in participants 65 years of age or older. Severe Covid-19 occurred in 30 participants, with one fatality; all 30 were in the placebo group. Moderate, transient reactogenicity after vaccination occurred more frequently in the mRNA-1273 group. Serious adverse events were rare, and the incidence was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy at preventing Covid-19 illness, including severe disease. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.)
|N Engl J Med||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|146||Multidisciplinary research priorities for the COVID-19 pandemic: a call for action for mental health science |
Summary The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is having a profound effect on all aspects of society, including mental health and physical health. We explore the psychological, social, and neuroscientific effects of COVID-19 and set out the immediate priorities and longer-term strategies for mental health science research. These priorities were informed by surveys of the public and an expert panel convened by the UK Academy of Medical Sciences and the mental health research charity, MQ: Transforming Mental Health, in the first weeks of the pandemic in the UK in March, 2020. We urge UK research funding agencies to work with researchers, people with lived experience, and others to establish a high level coordination group to ensure that these research priorities are addressed, and to allow new ones to be identified over time. The need to maintain high-quality research standards is imperative. International collaboration and a global perspective will be beneficial. An immediate priority is collecting high-quality data on the mental health effects of the COVID-19 pandemic across the whole population and vulnerable groups, and on brain function, cognition, and mental health of patients with COVID-19. There is an urgent need for research to address how mental health consequences for vulnerable groups can be mitigated under pandemic conditions, and on the impact of repeated media consumption and health messaging around COVID-19. Discovery, evaluation, and refinement of mechanistically driven interventions to address the psychological, social, and neuroscientific aspects of the pandemic are required. Rising to this challenge will require integration across disciplines and sectors, and should be done together with people with lived experience. New funding will be required to meet these priorities, and it can be efficiently leveraged by the UK's world-leading infrastructure. This Position Paper provides a strategy that may be both adapted for, and integrated with, research efforts in other countries.
|Lancet Psychiatry||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|147||Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China||Lancet Oncol||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|148||Structure, Function and Antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein |
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in >90,000 infections and >3,000 deaths. Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. We show that SARS-CoV-2 S uses ACE2 to enter cells and that the receptor-binding domains of SARS-CoV-2 S and SARS-CoV S bind with similar affinities to human ACE2, correlating with the efficient spread of SARS-CoV-2 among humans. We found that the SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein harbors a furin cleavage site at the boundary between the S(1)/S(2) subunits, which is processed during biogenesis and sets this virus apart from SARS-CoV and SARS-related CoVs. We determined cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, providing a blueprint for the design of vaccines and inhibitors of viral entry. Finally, we demonstrate that SARS-CoV S murine polyclonal antibodies potently inhibited SARS-CoV-2 S mediated entry into cells, indicating that cross-neutralizing antibodies targeting conserved S epitopes can be elicited upon vaccination.
|Cell||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
|149||The need for holistic, longitudinal and comparable, real-time assessment of the emotional, behavioral and societal impact of the COVID-19 pandemic across nations |
|Psychiatriki||2021||LitCov and CORD-19|
|150||The 2020 Pandemic: Current SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Development |
Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome infecting animals and humans. Coronaviruses have been described more than 70 years ago and contain many species. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are lethal species caused by human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Currently, a novel strain of HCoVs, named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital city of the Hubei province of China, and has since spread worldwide causing an outbreak in more than 200 countries. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11th, 2020 and a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC) in late January 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). SARS-CoV-2 infects the respiratory tract causing flu-like symptoms and, in some, may cause severe illness like pneumonia and multi-organ failure leading to death. Today, Covid-19 cases almost reaching 9 million, with more than 450 thousand deaths. There is an urgent demand for developing a vaccine since no effective therapies or vaccines have been approved to this day to prevent or minimize the spread of the infection. In this review, we summarized the furthest vaccines in the clinical pipeline.
|Front Immunol||2020||LitCov and CORD-19|
(1) COVID-19 Open Research Dataset (CORD-19). 2020. Version 2022-06-02. Retrieved from https://ai2-semanticscholar-cord-19.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/historical_releases.html. Accessed 2022-06-05. doi:10.5281/zenodo.3715506
(2) Chen Q, Allot A, & Lu Z. (2020) Keep up with the latest coronavirus research, Nature 579:193 and Chen Q, Allot A, Lu Z. LitCovid: an open database of COVID-19 literature. Nucleic Acids Research. 2020. (version 2022-07-25)
(3) Currently tweets of June 23rd to June 29th 2022 have been considered.